Norwegian - English Dictionary

(From http://home.online.no/~otjoerge/files/wordlist.htm#G - copyrighted by Mr. Jørgensen)

This list contains Norwegian words with their English translations.  
The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources.  
If the word you are looking for is not on this list, 
please consult a Norwegian - English dictionary. (See "Additional Resources" section below.)

Norwegian is a Germanic language like Swedish, Danish, and Icelandic.  
There are two official dialects in Norway.  
Prior to 1915 most Norwegian records are in a language closer to written 
danish than modern Norwegian.  
You may also want to refer to the Danish Genealogical Word List (Series LANG -DAN, 1).  
Records published after 1915, such as family and local histories, are in modern Norwegian.  
Most differences between modern and old Norwegian are simply a matter of spelling.  
Carefully study the section below on spelling   This will help you find words on this list.


Varient Forms of Words

In Norwegian, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they 
are used in a sentence.  
Who---whose---whom or marry---marrries---married are examples in English with varient forms.  
The endings of a word in a document may differ from those in this list, for example:

        Mann     -  man                 Kone   -  wife
        Mannen   -  the man             Kona   -  the wife
        Menn     -  men                 Koner  -  wives
        Mennene  -  the men             Konene -  the wives



Alphabetical Order

The Norwegian dictionaary has three additional letters:  Æ (æ), Ø (ø) and Å (å).  
In most record sources prior to 1915, 
Å is written as Aa (aa) and filed at the beginning of the alphabet.  
Modern Norwegian dictionaries, indexes, 
the locality section of the Family History Library Catalogue, 
and this word list use the following alphabetical order:


Spelling

        aa used for å     j used for gj         f used for v          w used for v
        b used for p      ld used for ll        g used for k          x used for ks	
        c used for k      nd used for nn        i used for j          ch used for k
        d used for t      q used for k          tj used for kj        hj used for j
        e used for æ      ae used for æ         oe used for ø         u used for v	

Examples:
gjorler spelled as giørler                      
mann spelled as mand                          
kvinne spelled as quinde

The ASCII character map for the Norwegian characters
enables you to write whatever characters you like even if you don't have them on the keyboard.
  
Æ     alt-0198
  
æ     alt-0230
 
Ø     alt-0216
 
ø     alt-0248
 
Å     alt-0197
 
å     alt-0229

°     alt-0176 (degree symbol)

Ä     alt-0196                          alt-0188 = ¼     alt-0189 = ½      alt-0190 = ¾
ä     alt-0228                          alt-0185 = ¹     alt-0178 = ²      alt-0179 = ³
Ë     alt-0203
ë     alt-0235                          alt-0174 = ®     alt-0169 = ©      alt-0186 = º 
Ö     alt-0214
ö     alt-0246                          alt-0163 = £      
Ü     alt-0220                          alt-0177 = ±     alt-0167 = §
ü     alt-0252                          alt-0233 = é     alt-0201 = É      alt-0224 = à


(Hold down the ALT button and at the same time type the four digit number)
Se also Accessing Special Characters   
to have more information of all characters.

Windows - Alt Key Numeric Codes   


Additional Resources

This word list includes words only most commonly found in genealogical sources.  
For further help, use a Nowegian-English Dictionary.  
Several Norwegian-English Dictionaries are available at the Family History Library.  
These are in the Scandinavian collection. Their call numbers begin with 439.82321.  
Family history centers can obtain the following dictionaries on microfilm:

Scavenius, H. Gyldendals Ordbøker; Norsk-Engelsk 
[Glydendal's Dictionaries; Nowegian-English] Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1945.  
(FHL film 1,224,705, item 4).

Scavenius, H Gyldendals Ordbøker; Engelsk-Norsk. 
[Glydendal's Dictionaries; English-Norwegian] Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, 1945.  
(FHL film 1,224,705, item 3).

W . Kirkeby, Kunnskapsforlaget (Ashehoug - Gyldendal) Norsk - engelsk (blå ordbok)
1993, ISBN 82-573-0301-1
(580 pages, 52.000 words)

Berlitz
Engelsk-Norsk
Norwegian-English
ISBN 0-02-964560-3
Published by McMillan Publishing Co.
(300 pages, 15.000 words)

Norwegian English Dictionary
by Einar Haugen
ISBN 0-299-03874-2
Published by The University of Wisconsin Press
(520 pagers, 60.000 words)


Additional dictionaries are listed in the subject section of the 
Family History Library Catalog under NORWEGIAN LANGUAGE DICTIONARIES or in 
the locality section under NORWAY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES

A helpful guide for reading Scandinavian language genealogical records is:  
Scandinavian Records Extraction, An Instrluctional Guide 
(Salt Lake City, Utah: The Church of Latter Day Saints, [1988].  
In addition to a glossary of names and genealogical word, 
this guide includes instructions in reading the handwriting.

Residents of the United States and Canada can order this guide (stock # PEGS0023) from 
the Salt Lake Distribution Center, 1999 West 1700 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84104.  
Addresses of distribution centers in other countries are available from the same address.

ON THE NET


Learning Norwegian on WWW

Since people are involved in learning the Norwegian languge Bokmåls- og Nynorsk-ordbok Tolken99
A multi-language translation program, shareware, USD15.
It translates Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, French, German, English and Spanish. It converts any of these to any of the others This is a preliminary list of Norwegian words for family relations Getting into the Norwegian census 1865 Norwegian Naming Practices About the Norwegian languages Language resource Norwegian on the Internet The Norwegian class on the Net - Norwegian Pronunciation On-line dictionary that has about 6500 words back and forth between Norsk & Engelisk. Census abbreviations used in the on-line 1865-1900 census records Norwegian Census Records (John Føllesdal) Norwegian kirkebøker - parish registers (John Føllesdal) SweGGate - Knowledge center (Swedish) Archaic Medical Terms AllChars works on Windows 95, 98, ME, NT 4, 2000 and XP (and there is an old 16-bit version) Ordliste (only in Norwegian of Old Words)
KEY WORDS In order to find and use specific types of Norwegian records, you will need to know some key words in Norwegian. This section lists key genealogical terms in English and the Norwegian words with the same or similar meanings. ENGLISH NORWEGIAN ENGLISH NORWEGIAN banns lysinger death døde, død birth fødte, født engagement forlovelse, trolovelse burial begravelse, jordet father far census folketelling female kvinnekjønn child barn husband ektemann christening døbte, døbt index register clerical district prestegjeld male mandkjønn confirmation konfirmasjon, marriage copulerede, egteviede konfermerede gift, vielse ENGLISH NORWEGIAN ENGLISH NORWEGIAN military militær parents foreldre mother mor parish sogn moving in innflytning probate skifte moving out utflytning vaccination vacccinerede, name, given fornavn wife hustru name, surname etternvn year år GENERAL WORDS This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months and days of the week are listed both here and in sections that follows this list. Parentheses in the English column clarify the definition. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å A__________ A/S abbr. for "aksjeselskap" = share company aar (see "år") aarlig (see "årlig") aandelig takkalter spiritual altar of thankffulnes aanne (see "onne") aasæde (see "åsete") absolvere to give absolution (religious) absolverte absolution adel nobility adelig noble adelsmann nobleman adjunkt secondary school teacher adkomst (see "tilgang") adkomstbreve letters of admission adlet to be raised to the nobility adoptere to be adopted adoptert adopted adresse address adtschilligt (see "atskillig") advare to coution advokat lawyer, solicitor, attorney aegtefaelle (see "ektefelle") aegteskab (see "ekteskap") aetten (see "ætten") af of, by, at, from (archaic) afdøde (see "avdøde") aften evening afgange (see "avgang") (archaic) afgaaende (see "avgående") afgaar (see "avgår") afsked (see "avskjed") agent sales agengen, sales representative for a company agentur sales agency agerland (see "åkerland") agronom graduate of an agricultural college akantusskurd literally "acanthus converted timber", but probaly means "acanthus carving" in this case. Tis is a kind of (imitated) decorative carved motifs used in classical Greek and Roman architecture. aksjonærar shareholders ald. abbr. for "alder" alder age alderdom old age alderdomssvakhet weakness of old age aldri never alfarvei road open for public alle all alle i faderens brød all in the father's bread"; which simply means that all are supported by the Father alle til hobe both of them togehter, all of them, the whole lot alltid always allmenning common, common el. commonable land (see also "almenning") can also be a street. ref in Bergen e.g. Torgallmenningen almenning forest og grazing land that several farms have the right to access and use The land may be public or privately owned (see also "allmenning") almisse charity or alms almisselem indigent, poor, charity recipient person who receiving charity almueskolen public school altså consequently, therefore, accordingly alter alter altergang communion alvorlig sirious amanuens assistant ambulansesjåfør ambulance driver amme to nurse amt administrative district / county (archaic) since 1918 the word "fylke" has been used (see "fylke") amtkommunens county's amtingenieurposten county engineer position amtmann chief county administrator (archaic) county governor (see "fylkesmann") amtsforvalter District Revenue Officer amtskole county school anden (see "andre") (archaic) andregutten the other (second) boy = andre gutten anciennitet senioprity ane ancestor andre others, other, next second anetavle pedigree chart anfall seizure, attack anføre record anførte entered, mentioned ankomst arrival anledning cause, reason anleggsarbeidar (see " anleggsarbeider) anleggsarbeider working on foundation anlægger constructs anmaerkning og kundskap notes about knowlegde andmeldt notified anmelderens navn reporter's name anmerkning remark, notice, note annen gang second time annen, annet second, another annet (also ymse) misc. anlegg construction, plant, set-up anno (Latin) year annonsere publish, announce ansat (se "ansatt") ansatt ved employed by anse consider ansett of (high) standing, well thought of, repectable ansette appoint, engage ansikt face ansjos anchovy anskaffe get, obtain anslag estimate, valuation ansvar responsibility antall number, count antfam number in family (abbr used in several sources) AOF (Arbeidernes Opplysningsforbund) = League for Workers Education AP (Arbeiderpartiet) = Laybor party apostelgods land that originally belonged to the Apostel church in Bergen and leased out to farmers apostelgogset (see "apostelgods") apotek pharmacy apoteker pharmacist april April arb abbr for "arbeider" arbeidar (see "arbeider") arbeide to work arbeider laborer, worker arbeiderkone worker's wife arbejdskarl (see "arbeidskar") arbeidskar (see "arbeidsmann") arbeidsleder supervisor arbeidsmand (see "arbeidsmann") arbeidsmann male worker or laborer arbeidsterapeut occupational therapist arkiv archive arkivinformasjon archive information arkitekt architect arm poor arm armod povertry Arrestant amthuusgaarden prisoner in the county jail artelerist Soldier arv inheritance arveavgift inheritance tax arvegods hereditary estate, heirloom arvejord inherited land arvelodd share of inheritance arveløs disinherited, without right of inheritance arvesak probate proceeding arveskatt inheritance tax arveskifte distribution of probate estate arvestykke heirloom arving heir arvtagere heirs assessor assistant judge (archaic) astma asthma at that atskillig considerably atten eighteen attende eighteenth, back attest certificate attunder back under attverande (see "resterende") attværende (see "resterende") attåt in addition, additionally attåtnæring subsidiary income, extra income audn or audne abandoned farm (frequently used as name of a farm that was abandoned during the Black Death) august August auk. abbr. for "auksjon" auksjon auction auksjonsprotoll auction records av of, at, by, from avbrote (see "avbryte") (nn) avbryte break off, interrupt avdeling part, division, department avdelingssjef department manager avdi (see "fordi") avdø die avdød dead, deceased, departed, late avdøde the deceased the departed avdødes arving beneficiary of the deceased avgaaet ved døden the person is dead avgang death, demise departure avgangen departed avgift duty, (monetary), fee avgrensa (see "avgrense") (NN) avgrense limited avgå retire depart avgående departed or resigned avhandling thesis, dissertation avhold temperance/abstinence avis newspaper avisforvalter newspaper manager avkom offspring, issue avling harvest avmønstre to sign off (maritime use) avsked (få avskjed) be discharged avsked (ta avskjed) retire avskil (see "avskjed") avskjed i nåde be honourable discharged, retire take leave avskjed resign, quit, departure avskedsord parting word avskriftene copy, transcript avslog refused, denied avtale agreement A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
B__________
b. abbr for "barn" beststed. abbr for "bestemmelsessted" bg. abbr for "bondegods" Bg. or Ber. abbr for "Bergen" city on the southwest coast of Norway bl.a. abbr for "blant annet" br. abbr for "bruk" br. abbr for "bruker" br. heile g. abbr for "bruker hele garden" bs. abbr for "busett" bill. bet. (see "billett betalt") (abbr.) baadsmand (see "båtsmann") badedrakten swim suit baaret (see "båret") (archaic) bage (see "bake") (archaic) bager (see "baker") (archaic) bageri (see "bakeri") (archaic) bagerdreng (see "bakerlærling" (archaic) bagermester (see "bakermester") (archaic) bagersvend bakerapprentice bakbygning back building, an additional residence behind main building bake bake baker baker bakeri bakehouse, bakery bakerlærling assistant on a backery bakermester master (master in the bakers guild) baketter back in time, previously bakke hill baneformann banevaktar (see "banevokter") banevokter lengthman bank bank bankkasserer bank cashier bankbogholder bank accountant bankfunksjonær bank clerk banksjef bank manager bannlyse excomminicate baptist Baptist bar carried bar barnet held child ( at baptismal font) bare only bark bark/barque (type of vessel) barn child barn u.e. (utenfor enkteskap) illigetimate child, child born out of wedlock barna children barndom childhood barnamme a woman who helped taking care of small children ?? Would not this indicate that she gave milk to the newborn when the mother did not (or if it was high class; would not) produce milk for the newborn baby herself barnebarn grandchild barnebarnsbarn great-grandchild barnedåp baptism, infant baptism, christening barnefar alleged father, putative father, child's father barneflokk crowd of children, family barneflokkane children groups barnefordelingssak custody proceedings barnesanger see Children songs barneseng childbed, cot, crib barneskole school, starts at 6; grades 1 thorught 7 barnesykdom childhood disease barnet the child barneviser (see "barnesanger") barneårene childhood barnlaus (see "barnløs") (nn) barnløs childless barsel confined to bed barselfeber childbed fever barselseng birthing bed barskog coniferous forrest (fir and spruce) basketak brush, tussle, scuffle bauta stone monument bautastein (see "bauta") (old viking) be pray, request bebodde occupied, inhabit beboelseskontrakt (see "føderåd") beboer occupant, resident bebyggelse settlement, built-up area, development buildings, houses, estate hypertrophied regions built-up area, urban area, urban district bebygd område developed area, built-up area bededag prayer day bedehus chapel, bethel bedekammer oratory bedekke cover serve bedendis kjede chain of prayers bedervet båd damaged boat bedrive hor commit adultery bedste (see "beste") bedstefader (see "bestefar") befatte seg med occupied with / deals with befestet fortified, consolidated befolkning population, people begavet gifted begravede buried begge both begge i 1ste ægteskab both in first marriage begges 1te ægtesk (see "begge i 1ste ægteskab") begikk leiermal commited adultry begivenhet event, occurence begrave bury begravelse funeral, burial begravet buried belg bellows, skin, hyll belte belt, girdle behandle handle, treat, manage behjelpelig helpful, be of assistance to bemerkning remark ben leg, bone benekte deny bensinstasjon filling station, service station, petrol station benyttet used benåde pardon beordre commanded, ordered beregningsgrunnlag basis for the calculation berettiget entitled bergarbeider mine worker Bergenskanten means the area around Bergen and is not the same as "Bergen Parish" bergråd besetning livestock, crew besittelse possession beskrevet described beskrivelse description beslektet related beslaegtet i 3die led meaning that they were sharing the same great grandparent bestaainde (see "bestående") beste the best bestefar grandfather besteforeldre grandparents besdstemoder (see "bestemor") bestemor grandmother bestemt appoint, fix / decide, degre, destine bestående existing bestemmelsessted place of destination bestyrer manager besvangre impregnate, get with child besøk visit besøkende visitor Bet. i Amerika paid in America (information connected to the emigration) betale pay betaling payment betalte paid betenkelig serious or unsafe betiene (see "tjene") betjene (see "tjene") betjens (see "tjene") betjent servant betler beggar bevilge grant, permission bevilgning grant, permission bevis proof bevitne vitne bibliotek library bibliotekar librarian bikube beehive, hive bil car Bilder pr. side pictures per page bilmekaniker motor mechanic bilulykke car accident biletet (see "bilde") billede (see "bilde") bilde picture billedhugger sculptor billett ticket billett betalt ticket paid Billet fra Amerika ticket paid in Amerika bind volume (book) biografi biography biologisk (far sønn...) biolgical father, son etc birkebeiner Birkebeiner, Birchleg, Birchlegger (historical) bisette read the furneral sermony bisatt interred bisettelse funeral service biskop bishop bispedømme diocese, see The Norwegian Church bishopric = A ecclesiastical district of administration which comprises all parishes (prestegjeld) within a geographical area. Headed by a bishop. bisme see Roman balance, steelyard and How to use blakk which is the usual color of the Norwegian Fjord horse - translates in English to *dun*. Blakken usual the name of a horse. blandkorn mixture of two type of grain, usually oats and barley blant annet among other things blei (see "bli") (nn) bli become blikkenslager tinsmith Blikkenslagersvend journeyman tinsmith blind blind blod blood blodforgiftning septicemia or bloodpoisoning blodgang dysentary blodskam incest blokkedreier a turner (maker) of blocks, as in block and tackle. bnr. abbr for "bruksnummer" bo to live at probate estate in placenames it means farm bodde lived bodeling distributation of probate estate bodkemester (see "bøkkermester) boede lived (archaic) boets etate's bogtroker (see "boktrykker") bok book bokbinder bookbinder bokhandler bookseller bokholder bookkeeper boks can, box boksen går Kick the can (game) boksel (see "bøksel") bokstav letter, character boktrykker bookprinter bolig residence, house bonde farmer (the profession) bondegods land owned by the farmers themselves, not by the king or the church bopel residence, domicile bopæl (see "bopel") (archaic) bor lives, living bordarbeider works in a sawmill borgarkrigssoldat soldier in the Civil war borgeimister (see "borgermester") borger citizen resident of a city who had permission to engage in profession or trade borgerbok listing of all "borger" borgerbrev certificate of bourgeois status, see borger (archaic) certificate of matriculation (present) borgerlig ekteskap civil marriage borgerlig vielse (see "borgerlig ekteskap") borgermester mayor borgerskap citizens, middle classes borje på (see "børje på") born (see "barn") borna (see "barna") bosetting (see "bosetning") bosetning settlement or taking up residence bortfestet contracted out Bortliciteret for fattigkassens regning = placed there at the home of the farmer offering the lowest price. Kind of a bidding. bortreist away from home bortrømt escaped bortgang death (of) bortsatt replaced in a new home bortsett (see "bortsatt") apart from bosatt settled, resident, risiding in, living at bosette seg to settle bosted residence bot fine botsskatt This refers to the confiscatorial tax by the name of "gjengjerden", levied on Bergenhus len by king Christian II in 1519/20, 1520/21 and 1521/1522, every time claiming 10 percent of the tax-payers net worth. brann fire brannmann fireman brannmester fire chief, fire company officer branntakst fire insurance value brannskatt in 1730 fire tax braut broke brennevinsbrenner distiller of spirits brennevins-kjele a kind of big kettle used for distilling of spirits. These kettles were valuable because they were made of copper. brenneri Still or distillery breandev.hdl liquor dealer brev letter (correspondence) bro bridge Brockmanns huspostil Brockmann's Collection of sermons (for home use) brod (see "brød") broder brother (archaic) brodersønn brother's son (archaic) broderdatter brother's daughter (archaic) bror brother brordatter brother's daughter brorenke brother's widow brorsønn brother's son bru (see "bro") brud bride brudesvenn sponsor of bride brudgom bridegroom bruk use farm (note: the Norwegian farms were usually subdivided over the centuries into smaller "bruk". Each of these "bruk" were numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. Many "bruk" were only about 5 to 15 acres in size) brukar (see "bruker") brukarar plural of "brukar" bruker user of a farm farmer use bruker heile garden using the whole farm bruket the farm bruksnavn Subfarm name bruksnummer subfarm unit number bruksnr (see "bruksnummer") bruksfolk those on a sub-farm bruksrett the right to use a farm or part of brun brown brystduk a part of a national costume. There is probably an English word. It is a square cloth, usually embroidered or beaded, inserted inside the tunic - 'breast cloth' bruttomidelen "the gross fortune" or "the gross value of property" bruttoformue gross property bryggen dock or wharf bryggearbeider dockworker brygger brewer bryggeri brewery bryggeriarbeider brewery worker bryllup wedding brød bread brødre brothers brændevinsbrænderi a destillery budde (see "bodde") budeie milkmaid buffetjomfru woman serving at a buffe bukk male goat bukker male goats Bukkehorn Pictures and information about Bukkehorn (ram or goat horn) bukse pants bunad Norwegian national costume bumerke branding mark, branding iron was used instead of segnature, often by people that couldn't read. It was fully approved in official contracts etc. Often carved out of wood, or made as a signet ring. bundtmager (see "buntmaker") buntmaker furrier bur lives (nn) cage bureisar (see "bureiser") bureiser settler buret (abbr for "stabburet") busetjing (see "bosetting") busett (see "bosatt") busette seg (see "bosette seg") buskap live stock buskbeplantningen the shrub planting bustad (see "bolig") butikk shope, store butikkdame saleswoman (in a shop) butikjomfru saleswoman, shopgirl butikksjef store manager butiksvend (see "butikkekspeditør") (male) butikkekspeditør shop assistant by town, city bydel part of the town bygd small community, village, rural district, parish bygdebok rural cronicles see How to use a Norwegian "bygdebok" in your genealogy research (John Follesdal) see Bygdebøker - Bygdeboks (John Follesdal) see A 'bygdebok' - what is that? (Johan I. Borgos) see Newbies notes see Bygdebøker - Bygdeboks (John Follesdal) an other bygdeborg parish fortress bygdefolk country people, villagers bygdevei country road, lane bygdelag regional society bygdesoge (see "bygdebok") n.n. bygg barley bygge to build bygget buildt bygmester (see "byggmester") byggmester Master builder bygning building bygningsarbeider construction worker, builder, building worker Bygningsmand (see "bygningsmann") bygningsmann builder or carpender bygningstømmermd building carpenter bygningsneker (see "bygningssnekker") bygningssnekker joiner (in the building trade bygningsstein building stone bygsel particular leasehold, lease bygseltomt leashold site bygselbrev written contract for the lease of land. bygselmann leaseholder bygselen the lease bygsla past tense of "bygsle" bygsle lease, let on lease bygslet land leased land byksle (see "bygsle") byll abscess bygård block of flats, US: apartment building, apartments byhus townhouse bymuseum city museum byrå department bystyret city council byxle (see "bygsle") bære carry bødker (see "bøkker") bøgger (see "bøker") (archaic) bøker books bøkker cooper, barrel maker bødkermester (see "bøkkermester") bødkerøks (see bøkkerøks") bøkkermester master cooper bøkkerverksted copper's shop bøkkerøks rounding el. hollow adze bøksel (see "bygsel") bølge wave bønn prayer bønder og gaardbrugere farmers børje på started with børn (see also "barn") Children (in Plural) (archaic) bøssemagerdreng riflemaker's apprentice bøtelagt to have been fined bøye buoy bøxel (see "bygsel") bøxelmand (see "bygselmann") bøxelbonde (see "bygselmann") bøxle (see "bygsle") bære to carry båd (see "båt") (archaic) både both, either bådsmann boatswain båret carried bås stall, box, pen båt boat, ship båtbygger ship builder båtbygjar (see "båtbygger") A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
C__________ cammerraad litterally: chamber councillor, originally a title from the royal court depicting a nobleman close to the king, later on a pure honorific. cancellieråd cathechismesanger songs praphrasing the contents of he cathechism-book (Luther). caut abbr for Cautionister (see "vitner") (see "forlover") cautionister (see "vitner") (see "forlover") cellulose chemical pulp, which is the base for paper production Chjirurgisk (see "kirurgisk") cirka approximately ca. approx. Cicelørlærling (see "siselørlærling) civilstand (see "sivilstand") confirmeret confirmed communion communion conduite (see "snarrådig") confirmerede confirmed constitueret (see "konstituert") contorist (see "kontorist") contrastefne (see "kontrastevne") copie (see "kopi") cop. abbr. for "copulerede" (in churchbooks) copulerede marriage copuleret (see "copulerede") cuur (see "kur") A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
D__________
d. abbr. for "død" d.e. abbr. for "den eldre" d.kr. abbr. for "døde omkring" d.y. abbr. for "den yngre" d.s.s. abbr. for "det samme som" d.s.å. abbr. for "død samme året" d.å.e abbr. for "død året etter" d.å. abbr. for "det år" dl. abbr. for "dalar" dlr. abbr. for "dalar" dvs abbr. for "det vil si" d.v.s. abbr. for "det vil si" da then, when daab (see "dåp") (archaic) daap (see "dåp") (archaic) DaabsAttest (see "dåpsattest) (archaic) dag day dagen før the previous day dagligstua the living room daglønnet day pay earner dagleie (see "daglønnet") dagsarbeide One days work dagarb. (see "dagarbeider") dagarbeider day laborer; One who hasn't a steady job - takes what he finds from day to day dagsarbeider (see "dagarbeider") dagarbeiderske day laborer (female) dagsregister daily register (index) dal valley dalar old currency, see Old measurements damask dornick damefrisør ladies' hairdresser dampskib steamboat (archaic) Danmark Denmark dannekvinde gentlewoman dannemand gentleman danse dance danselaerer male dancing teacher dansk Danish dass (see "utedo") datamaskin computer datere to date (as in setting a date to something) dato date datter daughter datterdatter daughter's daughter dattersønn daughter's son datum (Latin) date de they, those, the degn parish clerk dei gamle the old ones deira (their) (nn) dekkmann deckman, a workman employed on the deck of a vessel dele to divide, to share deling partitioning, dividing delt partitioned, divided delta take part, share deltatt taken part deltagelse participation, attendance sympathy deltager (see "delta") deltaget (see "deltatt") delvis partially dem them, they demitert resigned, retired den the, it, that Den barmhjertige Samaritan The Good Samaritan den eldre the oldest den lille the small one, the young one (refering to small, young children) Den Norske Kirke The Norwegian Church; is a state church, and its clergy are senior officials. The country is divided into 10 bishoprics and the church is governed or guided by a Church Council or Consistory. den yngre the younger den yngste the youngest denge (see "slå") denne this der there deres their deretter subsequently derfor therefore derimod against (him) desember December dessutan in addition, besides, moreover det it, that, the Det bibelske regnebret The biblical calculating board Det nye testamente The New Testament det samme som the same as det samme året same year det år that year det vil si i.e. dette this diakon deacon, male nurse Diakonissehus An originally monastic nurse school, still in existence in Norway. difteri diptheria diksel (see "bøkkerøks") diktargivnaden gift of writing dimmitert disharged from military service din your direktør manager, director direksjon board of directors disse these dissenter is a person that is a member of an other church society than the official State Lutheran Church of Norway. These persons are baptised in a dissenter church, eg. the Methodist church. distrikt district distriktsjef district manager disktriktslege medical officer of health. (In norwegian the english tittle sounds like something military, but it's not) ditto the same as above (in i.e. taxlists), se also "do" diverse various djevel devil do toalett privy the same as above (in ieee taxlists), se also "ditto" (see also "utedo") dodfodte (see "dødfødt") dode (see "døde") dosent associate professor dokument document domb (see "dom") dom judgement (legal term) ("see also "dum") domkirke cathedral dommer judge domprost catherdral dean domstol court of law dotter (see "datter") dra to travel to pull draaps (see "drops") dragon draggon, light cavalryman dragoon (see "dragon") dram (see "drink") dreiv ran, operated dreng boy drengebarn male child drengestubygning servant's quarters drepende fatale, mortal drev ran, operated driftsjef manager, leader of a company or an enterprise driftsleiar (see "driftsjef") drink snifter drive run, operate driver sjøbruk running a fishing business dronning queen drops candy drosje taxi (cab) druknede (see "druknet") druknet drowned dræbende (see "drepende") du you du er ute you are out! dugmager (see "seildukmaker") dum dumb, idiot, retarded dydig virtuous dyr animal expensive dyreste the most expensive dyrlege veterinarian dæksmand (see "dekkmann") dø to die dø ut die out døbe (see "døpe") (archaic) døbenavn (see "døpenavn") (archaic) døbt (see "døpt") (archaic) død dead død samme året dead the same year død året etter dead the following year, dead the next yerar døde died døde etter died after døde fær died before døde omkring died about dødfødt stillborn dødfødte stillborn dødsbo estate of a deceased person dødsdato date of death dødsfald (see "dødsfall") dødsfall death dødsleiet deathbed dødsår year of death dødsårsak cause of death dødtrene (see "døtrene") døgn 24-hour period of time dømt sentenced (judicial) døpe christen (f.eks. He was christened John after his father.) (formal and in ecclesiastical language) baptize (about ship) christen, name døpenavn christian name døpt baptized, christened dør dies døtre daughters døtrene the daughters døyr (see "dør") (nn) døv deaf døvstum deaf and dumb døyde (see "døde") (nn) døype (see "døpe") (nn) då (see "da") dåp baptism dåpsattest certificate of baptism, Birth Certificate, cristian record dåpsdag babtismal day A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
E__________
eed (see "ed") ed oath etc. et cetera, and so on (abbr) efter (see "etter") eftercommer (see "etterkommer") efterkommer (see "etterkommer") efterlader (see "etterlater") efterlatte (see "etterlatte") efterlevende surviving efterleverske (see "enke") (archaic) eftermiddag (see "ettermiddag") efternavn (see "etternavn") efterslektstavle (see "etterslektstavle") egen own (his own, her own) egentlig actual egg egg eggedosis eggnog, egg-flip eggekrem egg custard eggelikør egg liqueur eggepunsj eggnog eggerøre scrambled eggs eie,eje to own eiendom property, real estate eiendomsdeling distribution of poperty in probate eiendomsoverdraging transfer of property eier owner eige (see "eie") (nn) eigelut (possession (of things) (nn) eigedomstilhøve eigedom + tilhøve = possesions, property, estate, grounds + circumstances, conditions. property condition eigendom (see "eiendom") (nn) eike wheele spoke eje (see "eie") ejendomb (see "eiendom") ekkja (see "enka") (nn)(spoken language) Eks. abbr. for "eksamen" eksamen graduated eksamen artium degree from senior high school ekspeditør clerk, shop assistant ekspeditrise shopgirl, shop assistant, saleswoman ekspedisjonssekretær shipping officer ekstraskatt supplementary tax ekstraskattemanntall census type listing of those paying supplementary tax ekte legitmate, to marry ektefelle spouse, marriage partner ektefolk (see "ektepar") ektemann husband ektepar married couple ekteskap marriage ekteskapelig marital, conjugal ekteviet married ekvipering outfitting eldre older eldst oldest, eldest eldste klasse oldest class elektrikar (see "elektriker") elektriker electrician elektroteknikar electrician elev student elgskinn moose hide eller or, or else elleve eleven ellevte eleventh elv river, stream embedekontor official office, government office Embedsmænd (see "embetsmann") embedet (see "embete") embete public office embetsmann Senior civil servants (those whose position required an appointment by the "Statsråd" - a parliamentary meeting conducted by the king) or clergy member embetsmannsarkivet archive of senior civil servants and stae clergy emigrant emigrant emigrantprotokoller records maintained by the police in main seaports of those who emigrated throught the seaport Emigrasjonsprotokoller & the ships of our ancestors emigrere emigrate emisær (see "emissær") emissær emissary en a, one ene alone enebarn only child England England engelsk English engelsk syke rickets englænderne men from England = Englishmen enhver each enka widow (nn) enke widow enkemann widower enkemannens widower's enkestand widowed enkja (see "enke") (nn) enkja er oppsagd frå bruket his widow was given notice from the farm. enkje (see "enke") (nn) enkjemann (see "enkemann") (nn) ennu yet, still enroulleret enrolled (in the military) enskipet single naved (church) enslig single entall singular entl. (abbr for entlediget) entlediget dismissed, removed from office, retired entrepenør contractor epidemier Bidrag til epidemienes historie i Norge i eldre tider epilepsi epilepsy er is, are erholde obtained erhverv livelihood erhvervet acquired erkjenne acknowledge ermer arms sleeve ernære (see "forsørger") erobringen the capturing, comquering erter peas eske box, case et a, one etasje floor, story etatsråd etnisitet ethnicity ett one etter after etterfølger successor etterfølgere successors etterhvert little by little etterkommer descendant etterkvart (see "etterhvert") etterlatte surviving, survivors etterlater leave (behind) etterlevende surviving ettermiddag afternoon etternavn surname, last name etterslektstavle table of descendants ettertrykkelig emphatically Evangeliesange Evangelical songs evige Sne perpetual snow (often used as a synonym for glacier) eyendom (see "eiendom") examen degree (akademic) certificate examen artium degree from senior hight school evne intelligence A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
F__________
f. abbr for "fødd" f.eks. e.g. (abbr) f.kr. abbr for "født omkring" f.t. abbr for "for tiden" fam. abbr for "familie" fam. still. abbr for "familiestilling" frgs abbr for "forregåendes" fa'en a contraction of "fanden" when something goes bad faar (see "får") faarehyrde (see "fårehyrde") fabre abbr for "fabrikk" fabrikk factory fabrikkarbeidar (see "fabrikkarbeider") fabrikkarbeider Factory worker fader (see "far") (archaic) faderen (see "faren") (archaic) faderskap (see "farskap") (archaic) faddere sponsor, christening, parents, godparents faddergave present given to child by godfather or godmother at baptization /christening faddernes navne godparent's name; name of the witnesses fadste (see "faste") fagforeningsarbeidet the work in the labor or trade union fallesyke epilepsy faldt (see "falt") faldne (see "falne") falne the fallen falt fall, be killed in war familie family familie historie lineage books familiestatus family status familiehoved head of family familienavn family name, surname familiestilling position in the family, family status fanden the devil fange prisoner fantepakk (could be som more or less "bad" person, often used on thiefs, gipsys or other persons far father faren the father faret til søes gone to sea farbror father's brother, uncle farfar paternal grandfather fargar (see "farger") farger dyer colour farmor paternal grandmother farskap paternity farsslekt fathers family farsot pestilence, plague fartøy vessel, craft farver (see "farger") faste fast fastelaven shrovertide faster aunt (father's sister) fastermand (see "fastermann") fastermann husband of father's sister fastlagt (see "bestemt") fattig poor fattigattest paupers reference fattigbøsse poor box fattigcassa (see "fattigkassa") fattigdom poverty fattigforstander manager of the poor relief fund fattigfolk poor peolpe fattigfornem shabby-genteel fattiggutt poor boy fattighus poor-house fattigslig baggarly, poor mean fattigkasse poor relief fund fattigkvarter poor quarter fattigkommisjonen welfare commission, commision for the poor fattiglem pauper fattigmann poor man fried cruller (cake) poor man's biscuits fattigunderstøttes supported by the welfare agency fattigvesen welfare agency, poor rleif, poor-law authorities fattigvæsen (see "fattigvesen") favn embrace fathom feber fever februar February fedre fathers fehandlar person in the cattle business fehus cowhouse fekk (see "fikk") fele Pictures and information about Ordinary violin (vanleg fele) felles common, joint felles sønn son of both parent (used in census) fellesfjøs cowshed, cowhouse (for the cattle, livestock) feltlivet the camp life, life in the camp felttog campaign, (military) expedition fem five fembøring Fembøring femte fifth femten fifteen femtende fifteenth femti fifty femtiende fiftieth fengsel prison fenrik esign (1700's), secon lieutenant (modern) ferdiggjeringa finishing ferge ferry fergegutt boy working at the ferry fergemann ferryman feskatt in 1628 cattle tax feste foothold (see "bygselbrev") fixe festeavgifta contract fee festergave engagement present festesetel (see "bygselbrev") festning fortress festningsstraf for imprisonment fetevarer obsolete term for groceries, also old term for meat fetter cousin (male) fikk received (fikk is the past tense of "å få" (to get)), obtained, acquired finder (see "finner") finne to find fin (on fish) person from Finland finner find Finnland Finland finnsk person or object from Finland fire four firmenning third cousin fisk fish fiskebruk the gear(nets, boats and other tackle used in the fisheries) fiskehandler fishmonger fiskekaker Fish Cakes fisker fisherman fiskeri fishery, fishing fiskerioppsyn fishery protection, inspection fiskeveier a person who is weighing fish fjantet foolish, frivolous, silly, mentally handicapped to a light degree fjell mountain fjerde fourth Fjerding was used for a periode in the 1700s and 1800s as a term for a school district a quarter barrel (measure vessel for cereals) fjerdingsmann was a person who had the task of making every farmer and husmann in the fjerding pay their contribution to the cost of keeping the school in operation. fjorden fjord fjorten fourteen fjordepart 1/4 fjortende fourteenth fjærkre fowl, poultry fjøs cowshed, cowhouse cow barn fjøsen the cow barn fjøsstell dairy management flatmarksgrav grave on flat ground fledføring (see "føderåd" and "kår") flere several more flid og oppfoerdsel pains and behaviour flittig diligent fly aeroplane flyfille loose female flymekaniker aeromechanic flyttande moving flytte move flytte fra move away from flytte til move to flyttningsregister migration register fløyel velvet flødningsarb. log floating worker fløyte Pictures and information about flutes fløytinga timber floating / rafting timer down a river fodear (see "fødeår") foderaadsmand (see "føderådsmann") foderaadskone (see "føderådskone") foderet fodder fodested (see "fødested") fogd bailiff, sheriff foged (see "fogd") fogderegnskap baliff records, bailiwich records (archaic) fogderi administrative unit (archaic) foged (see "fogd") folge (see "kår") folio page (double) folk people folkmengde population folkekirken state church folkeopplysning popular education folkeregister citizen register folketallet people census folketelling census, see Norwegian Census Records (John Føllesdal) folketeljinga (see "folketelling") folktallet (see "folketallet") for for, at, before, by fodder (for the livestock) for alle rettar through all legal means for tiden for the time being foraeldre (see "foreldre") foran in front of forberedelse preparation, grounding forbilde ideal, example forbindelser connections forblødning bled to death forbrytelse crime fordi because forefaldt (see "forefallt") forefallt occurred, happened forregåendes previous one listed foreldre parents foreldreløs orphan forendes united foretaget (see "foretatt") enterprise, venture foretatt undertook forening society, association forettning shop forettningsmann shopowner, (business) man foretningsfører (business) manage forfatter author forfedre ancestors, forefathers forflødt transferred forfærdiger Kurver making baskets forgjenger predecessor forgreninger branches, ramifications forgylling gilding forhen (see "forhenværende") forhv. (see "forhenværende") forhenværende former, previous, preceding forhv. hmkone (see "forhenværende husmannskone") forhv. hmkone former cotters wife forhenværende former forhold situation, conditions forhus house in front ( main house on farm ) forkjøpet pre-emption forkjølet to have a cold forklaring explanation forkle apron forkyndt announced, proclaimed forkynnararven preaching heritage forlade (see "forlate") forlate leave, abandon forgive forleningsbrev forlikskommisær personal posission forlignelse reconciliastion Forlovar (see "forlover") forlove engage to forlovede fiancé(e) forlovelse engagement forlover best man, maid of honour, sponsor forlovere marriage witnesses, sponsors or cautionister (best men) who served as witnesses to the fact that the bride and groom were not so closely related as to prohibit the marriage. forlovet engaged formann foreman, supervisor formandskabet (see "formannskapet") formannskapet chairmannship, executive committee of parish or town council formiddag morning formue assets, property fortune, meaning an assessment of the valuables (real estate, stocks and bonds, bank accounts, objets d'art, cars, boats etc.) in the persons possession, with his or her debts subtracted. Fortune is taxable, but you have to own a lot to notice it. formueskatt property tax formynder guardian fornavn first name fornminne field of relics fornødenhed necessity (of life) forpakter manager of estate tenant farmer, one who leases the right to cultivate a farm forpagtn (see "forpaktning") forpaktning lease for tenant farmer forpleining board, food forretning business forridge (see "forrige") forrige former previous forringe diminished, made poorer in quality forråtnelse decay, decomposition, or putrefaction forråtnelsesfeber fever caused by putrefaction forsamblede (see "forsamlet" forsamlet assembled, convened forsikring insurance forsikringspremie insurance premium forsiktig careful forskjelligt (see "forskjelligartet") forskjelligartet varied forskning reasearch forsorges (see "forsørges") forsorges af ham provided for of him forsorgsstyret poor relief board or management forstand intellect, mind forstoppelse constipation forsvar defence forsvarsviljen will to defend forsørge to provide for, support forsørges av .. supported by .. , cared for by .. forsørges ved Privat godgjorenhed supported by privat charity forsåvidt in as much as fortegnelse list, registery fortelle tell Fortjenestemedalje Order or Merit (a medal) fortælle (see "fortelle") fortid past fortsættelsesskole Pupil at a school one level over the required minimum education. (archaic) framhaldsskole (archaic) forurensning contamination, pollution forvalter manager forældre (see "foreldre") (archaic) fosterb. abbr for "fosterbarn fosterbarn fosterchild fosterd. abbr for "fosterdatter" fosterdatter fosterdaughter fosterdreng forster child (boy) fosterfar fosterfather fostermor fostermother fosters. abbr for "fosterson" fosterson (see "fostersønn") (nn) fostersønn fosterson fostre foster, to rear fotograf photographer fotografi photograph fougit (see "fogd") fra from fradelt divided from fradrag allowance/deduction/discount fraflytte leave, move away (hadde) frafløtt have left, had moved from fragtbeløp cost of ticket, freight charge fragtemand (see "fraktmann") frakt freight fraktmann freight / cargo handler / transporter fram forward framgang (see "fremgang") framskap a certain type of cupboard, usual "innreiing" fraværende absent fraskille separate property fraskilt jord separated/dubdivided property fredag Friday frem forward fremgang progress, moving ahead framgå av be a result of, appear from, be evident from" frampå (see "frempå") fremkomme bring forward fremmed foreign, foreigner frempå in front fremstående prominent fremtid future frihandel free trade, the policy of unregistricted international trade frihandler This is a difficult term to translate. The modern usage of "frihandel" is free trade but this not the meaning here. It would refer to someone who sold certain goods unhampered by regulation or by permits etc. It would not be correct to say a street hawker or door to door salesman, but it would be along that line. frihet freedom, liberty frillesønn might just be a derogatory term used by the enumerator, but if the father was a married man, the term would be more or less justified friluftsliv outdoor life friluftsmenneske outdoor person Frimerke postage stamp Frimerkebilder postage stamp pictures (thumbnails) frisørdame lady hairdresser fritid free time fritidsinteresse hobby frivillig volunteer Frsværn abbr. for Fredriksværn (naval base), just south of Larvik in Vestfold fru Mrs. frue wife fruentimmer unmarried mother, female person (derogatory) gay? frugthandlerske woman working in a fruit store or rather the owner of a fruit store fruktsommelig pregnant frukthage orchard frydetoner joyfull tunes fryktelig frightfully frøken Miss frå (see "fra") (nn) fråhold (see "avhold") fulde (see "full") (archaic) fuldkomne (see "fullkommen") fuldmaegtig (see "fullmektig") fuldmegtig (see "fullmektig") full full, complete drunk fullkommen complete fullmakt power of attorney, autorization fullmektig head cleark, agent futedømme (see "fogderi") futeregnskap bailiff's accounts fv. (see "forhenværende") fylke Norway is divided as Norway - fylke - kommune USA is divided as USA - State - county fylkesmann county governor county administrator, chief administrative officer of a 'fylke' fylkesrådmann county commissioner fyr lighthouse fyrbøter stoker, beacon, light beacon, lighthouse keeper fyrmester foreman, boss (on the light house) fyrmeister (see "fyrmester") fyrvesenet lighthouse service of the Coast Guard fyrstikker matches fyrste (see "første") (nn) fut (see "fogd") (archaic) fædre fathers, partinal ancestors (archaic) fædrene (see "fedrene") (archaic) fæehuss (see "fehus") fælleds (see "felles") fælles (see "felles") færdesmand ( ferdamann in nynorsk) it means a traveller færge (see "ferge") færgemand (see "fergemann") færgegutt (see "fergegutt") færre fewer fætter (see "fetter") fødd (see "født") født omkring born about fødeår year of birth føderaad (see "føderåd") føderaadskone (see "føderådskone") føderåd support received after giving ones estate to another, the retirement agreement, also named as "kår" = kaar" Kår - føderåd a sort of pensioner, receiving support from new owners of the farm by contract made on the sale (see "kår") føderådskone woman on "føderåd" (see "kårkone") føderådsmann man on "føderåd" (see "kårmann") fødesogn native parish fødestad (see "fødested") fødested birthplace fødsel birth fødselsattest birth certificate fødselsdag birthday fødselsdato birthdate fødselsraten birthrate fødselsår year of birth fødselsregister register of birth fødselstalet birth census født born født utenom ekteskap born out of wedlock føl (see "føll") (nn) føll foal følgende following følges tilbake til traced back to før before førartype leader føremann predecessor førenamn given name førend before førnemnde the former, mention before fører pilot, guide, operator, master førepenger wedding garments and wedding ceremony ført recorded, listed først first førti forty førtiende fortieth føst kicked away, kicked out få to receive, to get får sheep receives, got mutton fårehyrde sheperd A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
G__________
g. abbr. for "gård" g. abbr. for "gift" g.m. abbr. for "gift med" grdbr.,selveier, skogeier og fisker farmer., owner, skogeier and fish(erman) gaar i dagleie working on short terms Gaar paa skole goes to school gaarsarbeide (see "gårdsarbeide") gaard (see "gård") gaardbruger (see "gårdbruker") gaardbruker (see "gårdbruker") gaardbrukerenke (see "gårdbrukerenke") gaardbrukerkone (see "gårdbrukerkone") gaardmand (see "gårdsmann") gaardsdreng (see "gårdsgutt") gaardsarbeider (see "gårdsarbeider") gaardsgut (see "gårdsgutt") gaardskarl (see "gårdsgutt" gade (see "gate") (arcahic) gal (see "sinssyk") gallfeber jaundice galt crazy, wrong male pig wild boar (male) gamle the old gammel old gammelt old gamleheimen home for the aged gamlingen the old one gangkone ward aide or erlier nurse ( around 1850) gangklær clothing ganske sikkert pretty sure gard (see "gård") gardar (see "gårder") gardfar head of the farm, freeholder gardbruker (see "gårdsbruker") gardmann (see "gårdsmann") gardsfolk (see "gårdsfolk") gardshistorien the history of the farm gardsmann (see "gårdsmann") (archaic) gardsmandskone (see "gårdsmannskone") (archaic) gardsnavn (see "gårdsnavn") gardsnr (see "gårdsnummer") gardsnummer (see "gårdsnummer") (archaic) gardsreiskap (see "gårdsredskap") garnisjonskirkegården garrison cemetery gartner gardener garver tanner garversvend tanner assistant gate street gatenavn name of the street gatenummer streetnumber gave gift, endowment geistleg ecclesiastical geit goat geiter goats generalauditeur highranking official whose work it is to control other officials in order to weed out graft and corruption generalløyntnant lieutenant general generalmajor major-general (UK), general major (US) generalssekretær secretary-general generalstab general staff generasjon generation geografisk leksikon gazeteer Geografisk Oppmåling A goverment mapping agency like the US Geoeodetic Survey gev. abbr. for "gevorbne" gevorbne enlisted (å) gifte seg to marry gift married poison gift 1 ste gang married 1st time giftet seg første gang married 1st time giftet seg att married again gift 2 de gang married 2nd time gift med married to giftet seg got married giftarmål marriage (nn) giftemålsaldern marriage age gifteferdig marriageable gikk walked gikt rheumatism giktbrudden rheumatic, gouty giktfeber rheumatic fever gilde feast, banquet, guild gimre a ewe which has not yet lambedgjeit (see "gjet") gitt husrom given shelter giver giver, donor transmitter, transducer giætter (see "gjeter") gjalle ring, resound, echo, reverberate gjedde pike gjeder (see "gjeter") gjeld debt gjeldfri debtless free from/of debt, out of debt gjeldsandel debt ratio gjeldsbevis promissory note written acknowledgment of debt, an IOU gjeldsbrev debenture debt instrument, instrument of debt, debt certificate, certificate of indebtedness/debt written acknowledgment of debt, an IOU promissory note non-negotiable debt instrument/debt certificate gjeldsfengsel debtor's prison gjelk med bles a castrated horse with a white spot in the forehead gjemt hidden gjemsel hide and seek (game) gjengangerens spectre, ghost gjenskjøpsretten the right to re-purchase gjenlevende survivors gjennom through completely, thoroughly gjennomsyn inspection or examination (being watched) gjenstand item gjerne willing(ly) gjest guest gjest vrl (see "gjesteværelse") gjesterom (see "gjesteværelse") gjesteværelse room for the guest gjestgiver innkeeper gjestgjevar (see "gjestgiver") gjet,gjeit goat gjæte to herd, to mind > gjætte , past tense gjeter herdsman, shepherd gjetergutt shepherd boy gjordemor (see "jordmor") gjordemoder (see "jordmor") gjæst (see "gjest") gjøre do, make, cause, render gjørtler brazier, brass smith glasskule glassbulb (see "kavl") glassverk glasswork glassmaleri stained-glass painted piece gloggkryddor Glöggkryddor (swedish) gløgg Glödd (swedish) Gløgg is a Swedish drink that has become popular in Norway as well. It is only (mostly) used at Christmas time. gmd abbr. for "Gaardmand, gårdmann" Gnav Games played with single suited cards Gnr. (see "gårdsnummer") abbr. god good God Jul Merry Christmas Gode ønsker Best wishes gods estate godsarkiv manors archive godseier estate owner goldsmith gullsmed goro Cardamon crackers grahest stallion graastein (see "gråstein") graasteinarbeider (see "gråsteinarbeider") grandnevø grand-nephew grandniese grand-niece grandonkel grand-uncle grandtante grand-aunt gratis (Latin) free grav grave grave to dig graver grave digger, sexton gravfeste (see "jordpåkastelse") graffest (see "jordpåkastelse") gravhaug barrow, grave-mound (interest to archeologists) gravlagt burried gravlegge to bury gravlund cemetery gravsten gravestone gren branch gren. abbr. for "grenader" grenader infantryman, grenadier grend rural neightbourhood/area grense boundary, border grenselos borderpilot, who followed people across the border and knew how to avoid the germans greve Count (Nobility) grevinne Countess gribber vultures gries (see "gris") gris pig grisen the pig grishus the house for the pigs grip(p)a (see "influensa") grossist wholesaler grovsmed blackmith grube mine, pit grubearb (see "gruvearbeider") grubearbeider (see "gruvearbeider") grunn ground, reason grunnleggjar founder grunnleggjaren the founder grunnleggjarar founders grunnleggjarane the founders gruvearbeidar (see "gruvearbeider") gruvearbeider Miner grønn green gråstein granite boulder, stone gråsteinarbeider stone cutter gubben a slang for an "old man" or the oldest male person in the household gudfar godfather gudmor godmother gull gold gulsot jaundice gulv floor gutt boy gutte-galen crazy after boys gymnas senior hight school gymnasiast turdent in sernior hight school Gymnastik Gymnastics gøymt (see "gjemt") gå go, walk går frem av (see "framgå av") gågate a street for pedestrians only gård farm gårder plurel of "gård" gårdsarbeide general farm labor gårdsarbeider a person working at a farm, field hand gårdsbestyrer farm manager gårdsfolk farm people, owners or tenants gårdsgutt farm hand gårdsplass courtyard gårdsbruk farm gårdsbruker farmer (farming his farm) gårdbruker farmer gårdbrukerenke farmer's widow gårdbrukerkone the wife to a farmer gårdeier farm owner gårdmann owner of the farm gårdmannsfolk those on the head farm gårdmannskone farmer's wife gårdsdeling division of the farm, often that a mainfarm is split up as new generation grew up and needed farms of their own gårdsgutt farmboy gårdsmann (see "grårdmann") gårdsnavn name of the farm gårdsnummer farm number, land number gårdsredskap farm equipment gårsdagens of yesterday A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
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h.h.v abbr. for "espectively" (henholdsvis) hpg. abbr. for "hospitalgods" hr. abbr. for "Herr" ha to have haandværker (see "håndverker") haandarbeide (see "håndarbeide") hadde had haer (see "hær") hafde (see "hadde") hagebruk gardening halsesyke throat infection halshugget decapitated halv half halvbror half-brother halvningen halving halvsøsken half-brother(s) and/or half-sisters(s) halvsøster half-sister ham him skin, slough hamlekorn (see "hummelkorn") hammer hammer mallet knocker gavel hammer, malleus hammerskaft hammer handle, hammer shaft hammerslagg iron scale, oxide scale hammersmed hammersmith hamn port han he handarbeidslærer teacher of needlework, sewing, etc handel trade handelsbestyrer shop manager handelsbetjent shop assistant, salesman handelsbrev business license, permission to buy and sell goods in a specified area. handelsfuldmægtig (see "handelsfullmektig") handelsfullmektig business agent or assistant handelshøyskolen college of economics and business administration Handelskarl Businessman handelslaget cooperative store handelsmann merchant, trader handler merchant, dealer or peddler handlerske female tradeperson handskemager (see "hanskemaker") handskrifta (see "håndskrifta") handteinrokk distaff = a split stick that holds the wool or flax for spinning handtlanger (see "håndlanger") hans his hansker gloves hanskmaker (see "hanskemaker") hanskemaker glove maker har has, have hardingfele (see "fele") hatt hat hattemaker hatmaker Haud second class in university exams, "Haud illaudibilis" means "Hardly unpraiseworthy" havbruk fish farming, fish breeding aquaculture, mariculture, sea farming havebrug (see "hagebruk") havestue garden room havde (see "hadde") (archaic) havn harbor, port havre oats hederlig honourable hedret honoured hei heath, moor heia (see "hei") heieslåtten upland haying heim home (nn), se also "hjem" heimangaver (see "medgift") heime at home (nn) heimeplassen (see "hjemmplassen") heimelsbrev document to prove ownership, authority, etc. heimevernet Home guard (military guard) but not similar to the US National Guard heimstad (see "hjemsted") heimtur the journey home hele whole, entire hekle crochet heks witch hellar (nn) heller rather helleristning rock carving hellig holy helligdag holiday helsa (see "helse") (nn) helse greatings (dialect) health hendes (see "hennes") (archaic) hendes datter (see "hennes datter") hengt seg hanged him/herself hennar (see "hennes") (nn) henlagt put awar, dimissed henne her hennes her (iee her children) hennes datter her daughter her here herad (see "herred") (archaic) heradsskriver district taxation registrar herkomst ancestry herlighed (see "herlighet") herlighet glory Herr Mr. (salution used in letters. Equal to Mr.) herredsrett district court herred municipality and judicial district, now called "kommune" (archaic) herredstyre (see "kommunestyre") herregård mansion/estate Herren God, the Lord hertugdommene (see "hertugdømmene") hertugdømmene dutchies hest horse hestesele horse's tackle hestesal hors saddle heter is named hexe (see "heks") hilsen greetings (from) best regards (from) hi the other (nn) hindes datter her daughter hindes son her son historie history hittebarn orphan, foundling hjeller drying rack for fish hjelpe help, assist hjelpepleier Enrolled Nurse hjem home hjemme at home hjemme hos forældrene living at the parents house Hjemme og Ute At home and abroad hjemmedobt (see "hjemmedøpt") hjemmedaabe (see "hjemmedøpt") hjemmedøpt baptized at home hjemmehørende residing hjemmet the home hjemplassen domicile, the place at home hjemsted place of residence hjemv. stays at home hjernen brain hjerneblødning stroke, cerebral hemorrhage hjerneslag stroke hjernesvulst brain tumor hjerte heart hjertefeil heart disease hjerteinfarkt hart attack, myocardial infarction hjertesvikt heartfailure hjertesykdom heartdisease hjo at (nn) hjortetakk stag's antler, hartshorn hjortetakksalt salt of hartshorn, spirit of hartshorn, sal volatile hjul wheel hjulbåten the paddleship or the wheelship hjulmaker wheelwright hjælpe (see "hjelpe") (archaic) hjælper Moderen helps the mother hjå (see "hos") (archaic) hoire (see "høyre") hm abbr. for "husmoder" hmkone (see "husmannskone") hmd abbr. for "husmand" hmds abbr. for "husmandssønn" holde hold, stop holdmann (see "kårmann") hor adultery horn horn hornskeier spoons of horn hos with, at hos foraeldrene (see "hos foreldrene") (archaic) hos forældrene (see "hos foreldrene") (archaic) hos foreldrene with the parents hospital hospital hospitalgods land belonging to a hospital and leased out to farmers host (see "høst") hoste cough hovedliste census list hovedpart main part hovedsakelig mainly, principally hovedstaden capital, ie Oslo, London hovudpart (see "hovedpart") (nn) Hubners geografi Hubner's Geography hud cow hide tax on land was often measured in terms of number of hides huff-da (see "uff-da") hummelkorn (from Scottish Hummelcorn) korn uten snerp) fellesbetenglse på kornslag som ble regnet som fine; de ble sådd i forholdsvis små mengder og helst ikke brukt i det daglige. On the westcoast (var det mest bygg og blandkorn) (hamlakorn) som ble klat hummelkorn On the eastpart (kunne hummekorn betenge både hvete, rug, skall-løst bygg (torekorn) og erter. hun she hundre hundred hus house hus- og fjøsstel housekeeping and working in the barn husar, hussar cavalryman husbestyrerinde housekeeper husbonde head of household husbondens sødskende The head of household's siblings husdyr farm animal,. eg. cattle, horses, etc huset the house husejer (see "huseier") huseier houseowner huseigar (see "huseier") husfader the father of the house (the owner of the place) husfader og fisker head of household and fisherman huusfader og fisker (see "husfader og fisker"), head of household Husfaderens soster logerende Head of household's sister boarder husflid home craft husgjerning household, housework hushjelp housemaid hushalderske (see "husholderske") husholdereske (see "husholderske") husholderske housekeeper husholdstatus status in houshold husholdning household huslyd a family unit living together in a house husmand med jord (see "husmann med jord") husmand smed og fisker tenant farmer blacksmith and fish(erman husmandssønn (see "husmannssønn") husmand (see "husmann") husmann cottager, tenant farmer, crofter, smallholder, person who rented a house with or without a small plot of land on larger farm. Rent was paid by doing part time work for the farmer. se also Norwegian farms - some background information Husmann "I don't think there is a good English word for 'husmann'. It is variously defined as cottager, cottier, cottar, crofter and cotter. Most of us use the word cotter. The term smallholder carries the implication of ownership, which is far from the husmann's case. Many cotter's places became smallholdings when the cotter was able to buy it. An tenant farmer is far too grand for the husmann's position. The husmann was allowed to erect his house on encumbered land, usually in return for farm labour. Then there is the problem of 'med jord' and 'uten jord'. Such land as he could use was essentially for his own domestic need and not farming per se. (Olav Kringhaug at the Noway-L January 29 2005)" husmann med jord person (a cottier) who rented a house with smal plot of land on a lager farm husmann med plads husmann m j (see "husmann med jord") husmann uten jord cotter without land husmann med lidt jord cotter with a small pice of land husmann u j (see "husmann uten jord") husm.søn son of a cotter husm.datter daughter of a cotter husmannsenke cotter's widow husmannsfolk cotter who worked for the "gårdmann" in return for (small) pay and a house and generally a small patch of land for their own use husmannskone the wife of a "husmann" husmannsplass cotter's farm husmannsseddel written contract between "husman" and the farmer that he rented from husmannssønn the son of the tenant farmer, the son of a cotter husmoder (see "husmor") husmor housewife, female head of the household husmorskole home economics school hustand household hustuft house site husstel (see "husstell") husstell housekeeping hustru wife (see also "kone") hustømmermann (see "snekker") hustømrer house carpenter huusmand (see "husmann") hva what hvad (see "hvad") (archaic) hval wale hvalolje waleoil hvalstasjon Kvalstasjonen på Skorøy hvem who hver every hvilken which hvis if, whose hvit white hvitblakk grå hest a gray dun colored horse hvor where hvordan how hvordan har du det how are you hvorfor why hvorfra indflyttet where moved from hvormed wherewith hvorvidt whether hyst (see "gitt husrom") hytte cabin hæderlige (see "hederlig") (archaic) hækle (see "hekle") hær army høi (see "høy") (arcahic) høj (see "høy") (arcahic) højde (see "høyde") (archaic) høgde (see "Høyde") hønseri poultry farm, hennery, chicken farm høst fall, autumn (the season) høy tall, high, hay høyde hight høyonne the haying time høyre right (side) høve possibility, access høvleri planing mill høvedsmann fishingboat master, smack master hånd hand håndarbeide handwork, Needlecraft håndtering occupation håndlanger assistant, helper, hodman henchman håndverk trade, handicraft håndverker tradesman håndskrifta the handwriting håndsverkssvenn journeyman A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
I__________
ikr. abbr. for "ikring" innrull. abbr. for "innrullert" ind. abbr. for "inderst" ibid ibidem, means the same place i in, within i går yesterday i beste fall at best i så fall if so, if that is the case i hjel, slå kill i hvert fall at least at any rate, at all events, anyhow, in any case i motsatt fall if not, otherwise i si tid in his time (nn) ibid same place (archaic) iboende Beqvemmelighed by lodger is meant renter of the occupied accomodation ihvertfal at least ihjelslagen beaten to death ikje (see "ikke") (archaic) ikke not ikke døpt enda not christening yet, not baptized yet ikkje (see "ikke") (archaic) ikring about, approximately ild fire ildebrann accidental fire imellum (see "imellom") imellom between, among imidlertid meanwhile imigrere immigrate imorgan tomorrow indebrændt died in a fire inderst (see "innerst") (archaic) indeholder (see "inneholder") (archaic) indgik ægteskab (see "'inngikk ekteskap") indlæg (see "innlegg") (archaic) indsee (see "innse") (archaic) indsidderske a female "inderst" (archaic) indst (see "innerst") (archaic) indstrumentmager instrument maker (archaic) indre inner (as opposet to outher) indrull enrollment office indtækt (see "inntekt") (archaic) infeksjon infection ingeniør engineer ingen none ingensomhelst nonwe what so ever Introduserte introduced, happened after childbirth inn in inne i inside inneholder contains innreiing (see "innredning") innredning furniture, probably mostly of the kind that are fixed parts of the house (built into house) innerst renter, innermost, lodger on a farm, se also Norwegian farms - some background information innerst inner, inmost, innermost, next to the wall innerstfolk peolpe living in rented house without any contract of work on the farm, typical a tailer innfl abbr. for "innflyttet" innflytte move into innflyttet moved in (to parish) innflyttede list of people moving in (in churchbook some records) innflytning moved in inngikk ekteskap entered into matrimony, got married inhabil incompetent, unqualified, disqualified (legal) innflyttede moving in to the area inngifte intermarried inngå enter, go in, enter into innhegning enclosure, paddock innhold content innlagt vatn indoor water installation innlegg contribution, speech innløse redeem innmeldte registering for school registering for new in the church (in churchbook) innrullere enlist (military) innrullert enlisted (military) innse comprehend, realize innsitter renter innsjø lake inntekt profit, receipt, revenue income, meaning taxable income, i .e. total income with the cost of doing whatever you do to make a living subtracted. (If you run a business, you deduct all business costs. If you are a wage earner, you still have a lot of interesting deductions, like the cost of travelling to your job, whatever you pay in interest on loans, and a host of other, smaller deductions. The whole system is complicated, but this is the grist of it.) This means that the incomes you find on the tax returns for each individual, is not what they actually made, but what they made minus deductions. inntreder to join, the army or a society. innvandre immigrate innvandring immigration innvie dedicate inste (see "innerst") instrumentmager (see "instruentmaker") instrumentmaker toolmaker iqvateere lodge, accommodate intet none introduceret introduced, after childbirth a woman was considered unclean until she had been "churched" or introduced to the church again. The parson met her in the church door and there was a ritual there before she was actually allowed to step into the house of God. In the records it says things like "Introduceret Ole Olsens qvinde". invie (see "innvie") island Iceland islandsk icelandic A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
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jfr. abbr. for "jevnfør" Jaegere Elite troops of the army jaeter (see "gjeter") jaekteskipper (see "jekteskipper") jagtliv hunting life jamfør (see "jevnfør") jamgodt equivalent to jamstore equally large januar January jeg I jeger light infantry soldier hunter, trapper jekt small cargo boat with half deck and sails jektefører captain on the "jekt" jekteskipper skipper of a "jekt" a relatively small sailship, especially used in Northern Norway jente (see "pike") jernbane railroad jernbanearbeider railroad worker jermbanefullmektig clerical officer, managing clerk at the railroad jernbaneselskap railroad company jernbanlæg railroad construction jernvarer iron items jernvegsarb. (see "jernbanearbeider") jernverk iron works, iron mill jetergut (see "gjetergutt") jevnfør compare with, see jevnførelsesliste index, cross-reference in church records jomfru damsel, Miss jonsok midsummer day jord soil, earth, mud land, jordakeren (see "jordåkeren") jordarbeider farmworker, field laborer, agricultuaral worker jordatausa farmgirl (wench) Jordbeskrivelse ("earth description" ) geography jordet (see "jordpåkastelse") jordboka land register, real estate register, the official land register book if you like jordbruk farming jordbruker farmer jordbruksareal farming area jordbruksarbeide working on a farm jordbruksarbeider farm-hand, farm worker jordbruksområde areas for farming jordbruksredskap agricultural equipment jordbruksskole agricultural school jordbrukstellinga land registration (for taxation) jorderike the earth, the world jorbøkene (see "jordbøker") jordbøker landregisters, real estate registers jorddrott landlord jordegods landed property, lands jordeier landed proprietor, landowner jordet buried jordfeste furneral service just after buriel or some times later (see also "jordpåkastelse") jordfæftelfes (see "jordpåkastelse") jordfestelse (see "jordpåkastelse") jordkjellar a separate earth cellar for storing potatoes, etc. Jordløs husmand Cottar without land jordmor midwife jordrotten the landowner, but usually used to describe someone who owned much land jordpåkastelse interment The word "jordfeste" or "jordpåkasting" refers to the priest's blessing (by tossing soil onto the coffin). Usually this would occur at the same time as the burial, i.e., the priest would be present at the burial and toss soil onto the coffin. If, however, the priest was away, it frequently occurred that the priest would conduct the "jordpåkasting" some time after the burial. It seems quite odd, however, that the person died 16 Dec 1879 and the "jordfeste" did not occur until 21 Aug 1881. I can't think of any good explanation for that delay. (John Follesdal, in epost to Norway-L, Date: Sun, 11 Oct 1998 16:46:48 -0500) jordpåkasting (see "jordpåkastelse") jordskatten 1802 landtax of 1802 jordskjelv earthquake jordskyld rental fee for renting land jordåkeren farmfield journalist journalist jul Christmas jul i Norge Christmas in Norway julekake Christmas cake, fruitcake, fruit loaf juli July jungmand orinary seaman juni June jurist lawyer jus law justisråd jæger (see "jeger") jævil (see "djevel") jætergut (see "gjetergutt) jøde Jew jøkel glacier A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
K__________
k. abbr. for "kvinne" k. abbr. for "kone" kj. abbr. for "kjønn" kr. abbr. for "kroner" kl. abbr. for "klokken" krg. abbr. for "krungods" krung. abbr. for "krungods" Kr.a. abbr. for "Kristiania" K.T.S abbr. for "Kristiania Tekniske skole" = Kristiania Technical School kaarmand (see "kårmann") kaaremand (see "kårmann") kadet cadet (army) midshipman (navy) kaffeforretning coffee business/shop kaffekvern coffee grinder, coffee mill kaffemaskin coffee machine kake cake kakke to knock, to tap kakse a person with more money than the other around, ieee owner of a big farm kalde (see " kallet") kall an old man calling give name to kallar old men kalle opp etter to be named after kallet named kalv calf Kammerherre honorific similar to kamerraad kammers small room inside the house kammeraters comrades kanskje maybe, perhaps kantskjaerer edge sawyer, in a sawmill kapell chapel kapelan curate, celric who assists the priest, deacom The head of a sub-parish (sogn). *) Be aware of that the words "Prestegjeld" and "Sogn" both are translated by the word "parish". kaptein captain kar man, chap, fellow karakter grad, marks karetmaker coach builder karl (see "kar") kart map kasserer treasuerer katedral cathedral katolsk Catholic kavl a float made of wooden or glas (on fishing net) kavaleri cavalry kaveringsmenn (see "forlovere") kavring rusk kemner town treasurer kikhoste whooping cough kilde source kilder sources kinn cheek kirke church kirkebok parish register, see parish registers (John Follesdal) and The oldest church registers in Norwegian parishes kirkegods land belonging to the church and leased out to farmers kirkegård cemetary kirkejordet churchfield or also the field bolingen to the church, used by a farmer kirkemand "church man" kirkesanger church singer kirkeverge church warden kirkeværge (see "kirkeverge") kirug surgeon kirugi surgery kirurgisk surgical kiste chest, box coffin (for dead bodies), log box (slang) kje kid, young goat kjelarb. (see "kjeldearbeider") kjelearbeider boilermaker one who makes industrial tanks/boilers at factory kjelde (see "kilde") kjemiingeniør chemical engineer, chemical scientist kjerring (see "wife") kjerringa (see "wife") kjerringer (see "wifes")or wives kjennskap knowledge kjent known kjevhendt lefthanded kjevle rolling pin roll out kjole dress kjorekar (see "kjørekarl") (archaic) kjønn sex, gender kjær beloved, dear kjærke (see "kirke) (archaic) kjærkejordet (see "kirkejordet) (archaic) kjøkken kitchen kjøpe buy kjøpte purchased kjøpmand (see "kjøpmann") (archaic) kjøpmann merchant kjøpstad city/town with merchant privileges, often a small town kjørekarl driver (of a horse) (archaic) kjøregut driver (boy) (archaic) klengenavn nickname klart clear klarte manage klede (cloth) fine wool quality kleder (see "kler") (archaic) kler clothing klimaanlegg air conditioner/conditioning klippfisk splitted, salted cod, dried in the midnightsun on the rocks (old version), see also "tørrfisk" klokka (see "klokke") klokken er the time is, iee at 12 o'clock klokker sexton, parish clerk bell ringer, deacon klokkerbok duplicate of the "kirkebok" maintained by the "klokker" kloster convent, monastery klostergods land owned by a monastary and leased out to farmers klær (see "kler") knapp button scant, scanty, short kniff knife (archaic) kobber (see "kopper") koffardifart merchant service koffardikaptein merchant ship captain koffert suitcase, trunk kokk cook koldbrand gangrene kolera cholera kolik constipation kollega colleague kolonialbutikk general store, grocery kolonne column kommune (område) municipality, local government (generellt) local authority, local council (bykommune) country borough, council Norway is divided as Norway - fylke - kommune USA is divided as USA - State - counties municipality, township or what ever :=) (US) township (Oslo - ) The City of Oslo (NB: Oslo is also "fylke") kommunearbeider local government employee/worker municipal employee, municipal worker kommunearkiv archive in the Local community/township kommunestyre local council kommunikanter attendants at Holy communion kompanjong business partner konditor confectioner konditori partry-shop, confectioner's shop konduite (see "snarrådig") konduktør railway conductor kone wife konens the possesive form og "kone" konens søster the wife's sister konferer compare konfirmant confirmand, candidate for confirmation konfirmasjon confirmation (jødisk) bar mitzvah konfirmerte confirmed konge king kongen befaler mohter may I (game) kongebrev royal document kongedomme kingdom kongelig royal kongeskoyte (see "kongeskjøte") kongeskjøte official (king's) deed Kongl. Bevilling Royal approval (not by the king himselv, but needed a government acceptence for some reason) konkurs bankruptcy konsistorialraadinde woman married to consistorial councillor, an honorific devoid of real meaning konstituert deputy, acting as konsulent consultant kontingent contingent kontor office kontorbetjent (see "kontorist") kontorfullmektig head clerk kontormann (see "kontorist") kontormaskin business machine, office machine kontorist office clerk kontorsjef head of an office, head clerk, office manager kontrakt contract, agreement kontrastevne sue against kontrollør controller, inspector, supervisor konvensjonen convention, custom kopi copy koppeattest smallpox vaccination certicate koppeinnpodning inoculation with the smallpox vaccine kopper smallpox, copper kopperkjele copper kettle koppskatt (in 1645) poll taxis to be understood as a tax for each "head" in the household. Comes from the German word Kopf - meaning head. (they had a more lyrical approach in the naming of taxes). korn grain korporal corporal korskirke cruciform church kort short, card korthet vrevity, briefness, shortness kort register card index kostelev boarder kpl (see "kapell") krampe convulsions kranfører crane operator, cranedriver, craneman kreatur cattle, live stock kreaturhandel livestock trading kreaturhold animal husbandry, keeping cattle kreaturstell cattle tender kreft cancer kremmer shopkeeper krets district circuit constituency kreve demand krig war krigens udbrud war's outbreak krigsberedskap war preparation or readiness Krigsassessor assessor military judge krigsfange prisoner of war krigskomm war commission krigsministeren Secretary of Defence, Minister of War krigsskatt in 1713 war tax krigsårene war years kristendomskundskab Religion Kristendommens kjerne Christendom's Essence kristna (see "kristnet") (nn) kristne baptized kristne tidsalder the Christian times Kristiania Oslo (Oslo was named Kristiania until 1925) kroner money (monetary units) krongods land belonging to the king and leased ou to the farmers krumkaker krumbcakes, wafer cone krungods (see "krongods") (archaic) krupp croup kræmmer (see "kremmer") kræatur (see "kreatur") (archaic) kræaturrøgt (see "kreaturstell") (archaic) krøllalfa curling alpha = @ kryssbytte cross exchange krøpling crippled krøtter (see "kreatur") krøtterhandel (see "kreaturhandel") ku cow ku-leie cow rent (Farmers sometimes put their cattle on another farmers land for tending and pasture, for which a fee was charged) kubbestol a chair produced from one piece of wood kuld (see "kull") kulhugger coal miner kull coal kullarbeider worker in a coal yard kullbrenner charcoal burner/maker of charcoal kuldbærer (see "kullbærer") kullbærer coal porter, carryer. a man in old days that did unload a coal ship or worked in a coal yard. Kullharker jernverksarbeider kulltomte (see "kullarbeider") kulturbeite cultivated / enclosed pasture kulturhus for bydelen social centre for the neighbourhood kumle potato dumplings kun only kunngjøre declare kunnskap knowledge kunstdreier lathe operater for artistic work kur paa sygehuuset under treatment in hospital kurv basket kurvmaker basket maker kusine cousin (female) kusk coachman, teamster kvart quarter kvartermester chief petty officer Kvartformat quarto (larger) format kveg cattle kveite halibut kvele choke kveld evening kveldsstellet evening preparation kvell (see "kveld") kven Norwegian minority people originally from finland who settled ( mostly) in the north of Norway from the beginning of the 1700s and onwards kvern mill, grinding mill (see also "kaffe kvern") kvige heifer that is expecting a calf kviger heifers kvinde (see "kvinne") (archaic) kvindeligt håndarbeide female handwork, needlework kvinne woman kvinner women kvindkjønn (see "kvinnekjønn") (archaic) kvinnekjønn female sex kvæn (see "kven") kværn (see "kven") kyllinger chickens kyr cattle, more than one cow kyrkje (see "kirke") n.n. kyrkjegods (see "kirkegods") kyrkjetuft church site kystvakt coastguard kæmner (see "kemner") kåpe cloak, coat, overcoat. kår support received after giving one's estate to another [When a son took over the farm (with all responsibilities) usually some sort of agreement was made with his parents. One part of the agreement was how his parents should be taken care of. Depending on the size of the farm they could be well off or not. One (or more) cows, some sheep, flour, potatoes etc. per year, plus somewhere to live on the farm. Some money per year might be in the deal as well, and in some cases one or two of the people working on the farm were designated to the older couple - often part-time. Often the older ones had to move into a "kårstue / kårstugu". "Stugu" = house, smaller than the main house. The young wife took over the responsibilities in the house, including the running of servants etc. and all the keys from the older wife. The takeover could be done early or late in the people's life. For some "oldies" it was nice to leave the responsibilities to a young, thrifty couple, while in other cases the old husband and his wife stuck to their rights as long as possible. For such a young couple, living with parents and father/ mother in law year after year without much to say, the quality of life and marriage might suffer a lot! (after Kjell Hernes on NORWAY-L)] kårytelse (old style) retirement pension kårfolk elderly couple who is supported by "kår" kårhus house on the farm where the "kårfolk" live kårkone woman who receives "kår" kårmand (see "kårmann") kårmann man who receives "kår", retired farmer living on his own farm with accomodation and support provided by the new owner of the farm, especially a son providing for his father kårstue house on a farm where the "kårfolk" is living A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
L__________
l. abbr. for "laup" ld. abbr. for "lodd" lnr. abbr. for "løpenummer" lsk. abbr. for "landskyld" ltn. abbr. for "løytnant" lpd abbr. for "lispund" ca 9kg la let, allow ladet (see "la") laegd (see "lægd") lagerarbeider warehouseman lagrettemann court member lagretten court laks salmon lam lamb land country property landbruk agriculture landbrukstekniker farm engineer landbruksmaskiner agricultural machines landet rural area "i landet" = 'in the nation' (in Norway, France, USA etc.) "på landet" = 'in the countryside' "ute av landet" = 'abroad' landhandel general store landhandler rural store owner landhandlerske female village shopkeeper landsby rural village landsfogd county police commissioner landskyld yearly fee for leasing land real estate tax landeværn (see "landvern") (archaic) landvern militia local defence consisting of "older" soldiers who had finished their mandatory military service http://www.stud.ifi.uio.no/~oddharry/dsfmc/kategorier.html langeleik Pictures and information about Langeleik langfredag Good Friday langt ned i tida far back in time lapskaus lobscouse, (UK) stew, hot pot lapskauskjøtt stewing meat lasaron tramp, bum Laud first class in university exams, "Laudabilis" means "Praiseworthy" laug guild Laugardag the day for having a bath (see "lørdag") laugrettet lagretten laugverge widows gaurdian/spokesman laup old measurement Laurdag (see "laugardag") (archaic) lausfunn a stray find, a find without context lausunge child born out of wedlock (somewhat rude expression) lav low, shallow lavere lower, inferior lefse old measurement legd welfare, military levying dist. lege doctor, physician legehjelp physician assistant legermål (see "leiemål") legermaal (see "leiemål") legemsvakhet infirmity legdslem welfare recipient legdeslem (see "legdslem") legdsmann a man looking after the military equipment (archaic) legdsbarn (see "legdsbarn") legg merke til notice leie hire, rent leieboer tenant leier tenant leilending lease holder tenant farmer see also Norwegian farms - some background information leilænding (see "leilending") (archaic) lejermål (see "leiemål") leiermål (see "lejermål") (archaic) leiemål illicit and punishable sexual intercourse between unmarried persons lekmann lay preacher lendemann/lendmann These terms were used in medieval times (11th - 13th century) and were titles denoting nobility. The 'lend(er)mann' was receiving taxes from the king's landed properties and was often used as an advisor by the king. He ranked after duke and earl. lenge long lenke chain chain, fetter, link lensmann sheriff lensmannsskjønn administratively-decided case of appraisement lenstid feudal age lensvesen feudalism lese read lett hovud light brain, easily to learn leve live levende live, living lever av occupation, source of income lever af sine midler lives of their own means (savings) liig (see "lik") Liigprædiken burial sermon when the parson tells about the deceased eulogy lik courpse alike, equal dead body likeledes also, as well likrøver grave robber likte liked likningsgrunnlag assessment basis lille small liste list listenr (see "listenummer") listenummer listnumber lite (litt) little liten small litt little liv life bodice (e.g. liv, kjoleliv, underliv, snøreliv) livlig spirited livrente annuity, life annuity livrett favourite, favorite dish livsarving heir, heir of the body, issue livsfange life prisoner livøre (see "føderåd") livøremann (see "kårmann") ljus (see "lys") lodd old measurement (1 lodd = 14.6246 grams) loftskammer attic room logerende (see "losjerende") logie (see "losji") logivært (see "losjivert") lok-fører (see "lokomotivfører") lokomotiv locomotive lokomotivfører locomotive driver, (locomotive) engineer, train driver los pilot (ship) losoldermand pilot master (ship) losjerende lodger losjerende, hører til fam lodger who is related to the family losji lodging, lodgings losjivert the owner of rooms for rent lov law lovlig legal, permitted lovtale eulogy lue cap lukket seng an inbuilt bed - with doors. lunge lungs lungebetendelse pheumonia or inflammation lungetuberkulose pulmonary tuberculosis lur Pictures and information about Munnharpe (Lur (alphorn)) luteraner Lutheran lutefisk Lutefisk from scratch, Make your own lutefisk, Lutefisk lut part (nn) lys light lyse pengemangel declare lack of money/funds "When a person had allodial rigths (= odelsrett) to buy a farm, this should be done before a certain length of time. If he declared "lack of funds" he was given a longer time to take over the farm and pay for it. The limit was 10 years and the right could be used 6 times The institute of "lack of funds) was already found in Magnus Lagabøter's (= Lawmender) landslov in 1274 and was also a part of Christian IVs Lawbook of 1604. The "lack of funds" institute was changed in 1771 to a maximum of 15 years and could only be used once and disappeared in 1821. (Jan Edvardsen - NO-2656 Follebu 22 Aug 2004)" lysning post banns, reading of wedding banns in church lægdsbarn welfare recipient (child) lægdslem welfare recipient læge (see "lege") lækjarhjelp (see "legehjelp") læregutt apprentice lærer teacher (male) Eaarlier there was a different in use, but nobody will use this distinction anymore. All persons employed in the teaching business are referred to as "lærer", which is seen as a neutral word, not gender specific. lærarinne (see "lærerinne") lærerinne teacher (female) lærerindeskole teachers school lærling apprentice, assistant løbenummer (see "løpenummer") løbing diarrhea løitnant (see "løytnant") løpenr. (see "løpenummer") løpenummer serial number, parcel number, sequential number The term refers to the matrikkel (property register) of 1838, which was in use until it was replaced by a new matrikkel in 1889. In the new register the more familiar terms "gnr" (gårdsnummer) and "bnr" (bruksnummer) were introduced. lørdag Saturday løsaktig loose or immoral woman løsarbeider day laborer løse pay off mortgage on land to buy out co-owners of land release løse folck (see "løsarbeider") løskarl free hand, takes any jobb that comes along løsningsrett reight of repurchase løsøre chattels, movables, goods, personal property løyse (see "løse") løytnant lieutenant låve barn, grain el. hay barn A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
M__________
m. abbr. for "mann" m.a. abbr. for "med annet" m.v. abbr. for "med vidare" matr. abbr. for "matrikkel" mk. abbr. for "mark" mmb. abbr. for "månadsmatabot" mnr abbr. for "matrikkelnummer" mage stomach magebetennelse gastritis magekatarr gastric catarrh magekrampe stomach cramp magesyke diarrhea, stomach ailment magesyre stomach ulcer, gastric ulcer magesår stomach ulcer, gastric ulcer magistrat town administrator (archaic) mai May mai maize, Indian corn major major, squadron leader makaskifte exchange/swap of real estate maken the equal, the match makt sway, power male to paint to grind as in a grist mill maler painter malersv (see "malersvenn") maleri painting malersvend painter journeyman malm ore malmlaster ore loader mandens moder his mother (the mans mother) mand (see "mann") (archaic) mandens stiff moder the lady married to his father after that the father 1st wife is dead mandens søstersøn the nephew (sister's son) of the man mandag Monday mandkjønn (see "mannkjønn") (archaic) mange many mangletre mangle mann man, husband mannkjønn male sex mannlige masculine manntall Norwegian Census Records (John Føllesdal) marine navi mark field old measurement (1 mark = 0.25 kg) marklag old measurement markere seg proved to be Marmorverk limestone quarry (might be located to Indre Hop, Fana, Bergen) mars, marts March maskin engine, machine maskenist engineer Masovnarbeider blast furnace worker. mat food matrikkel land register cadaster, cadastral farm lists tax lists for farms Land records - some background information (John Follesdal) matrikkelnummer number in the land register/roll matrikkelskyld rural land tax matros sailor magebetendelse (see "magebetennelse") mavebetennelse (see "magebetennelse") mavekatarr (see "magekatarr") mavesyke (see "magesyke") mavesår (see "magesår") med with med annet among other things med videre et cetera, and so on medbragt brought with medeier partner/joint owner medf moderen accompanies her mother medgift dowry gifts from the father of the bride the new household. I'm sure there must be an English term for it, but I don't know it. medhjelper assistant, helper medlem member medlemmer members medmenneskeligheten human being fellowship meg me megler mediator, negotiator stockbroker (aksjemekler) eal estate broker (eiendomsmegle) meis rucksack frame, willow basket titmouse mekaniker mechanic mekler (see "megler") mel flour meldt reported melis (US) confectioner's sugar icing sugar, powdered sugar melk milk mellom middle mellombygning middle building mellomnamn midle name men but menig soldier with rank of private menighet (see "sogn") menighedslemmer member of the parish, members of the congregation menn men mennesker persons mer more, additional merker old measurement merkes noticed merknad comments, remarks, annotation meslinger measles messingsmed brazier, brass smith messingknapper brass buttons mester master (of a trade) mestermann (see "bøddel") midlertidig temporarily midlertidig bosted preliminary place of residence midnatt midnight Mikkersdag St Michaels Mass, 29th of September, usually a day for paying taxes mil metric mile (10 kilometers) militær military Militære ruller military rolls (or register) min mine (possessive) mindesmærket (se "minnesmerke) mindre lesser mindreårig underage minearbeider miner Ministerialbok Churchbook written by the clergyman/pastor, see also "klokkerbok" minnesmerke monument minnetavle memorial plaques minste smallest, youngest minutt minute misjonær missionary mjøl (see "mel") mod (see "mot") moder (see "mor") (archaic) modedame egen f "fashion lady" with her own business modtagen (see "mottatt") modtog received mol (see "mål") montør fitter mor mother mord murder morfar maternal grandfather morgen morning morild phosphorescence (of the sea) mork sirap (see "mørk sirup") mormor maternal grandmother or mother's mother mormoder (see "mormor") moro fun morsarv maternal inheritance morsysteri mothers sister moster aunt (mother's sister) mot against toward courage moteforretning milliner's shop, (small) boutique motet the courage motorbåt motor boat motta receive mottatt received, accepted Munnharpe Pictures and information about Munnharpe (jaw harp or jew's harp) mundtlig (see "muntlig") muntlig verbal, oral, reading murarbeider (see "murer") murer mason, bricklayer musiker musician mye much mykje (see "mye") myndig of age myte myth mægler (see "megler") møbel furniture møblar furniture møblane the furniture møbelsnekker furniture maker møbeltapetserer furniture upholsterer mølle mill, grinder møller miller møllearbeider worker at a mill mønstre av sign off from crew's list (maritime) mønstre på sign onto crew's list (maritime) mørk dark mørk sirup molasses (dark syrup) mål 1 mål = 1 dekar = 1000 m2. (Norwegian system of land area measurement. One "mål" is approximately ¼ of and acre) måling measurement målstevne Short it is the designation on a specific discussion and negotiating meeting. The word was often ulised in old lawtext from the medieval. Often used as synonym to gathering måned month måneds months, monthly månadsmatleige old measurement månadsmatabol (see "månedsmatleige") måneskinn moonlight A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
N__________
n. abbr. for "navn" N.S.B (see "Norges statsbaner") (abbr.) nsj. abbr. for "nasjonalitet" naadegaveerne (see "nådegavene") naar (see "når") (archaic) naar afreist date of departure (archaic) nabo neighbor nadverd (see "nattverd") nagle rivet, spike naglet til stolen he sat as nailed to the chair namn (see "navn") nasjonalitet nationality natt night nattverd Holy communion, communion, sacrament Naturkundskab Natural science naust boat-house nausttuft boathouse site naut cattle navn name ned down nedennvnte mention below nedre lower nedrustning disarmament nedbrent burnt down nedbør precipitation nei no nemne (see "nevne") nemnt (see "nevnt") nervefeber is a medical expression that was used in the 1800s for the diseases today called typhoid and paratyphoid fever. nest second, e.g. second oldest son neste next, neighbor neste år next year nettoformue net property nettopp just nevne mention nevnt mentioned nevø nephew ni nine niende ninth niese niece nitten nineteen nittende nineteenth nitti ninety nittiende ninetieth nodebruk (see "notfiske") nokon (see "noen") noen some, any, someone, something nok enough nokre (see "noen") (nn) nord north nordstua north cottage Nordstjerneorden Order of the North Star nordre northern Norges Bank The National Bank of Norway Norges Statsbaner National Railway of Norway norsk mundtlig Norwegian reading norsk skriftlig Norwegian writing noter notes notfiske seining november November NSB (see "Norges Statsbaner") nu (see "når") nuhavende (see "nåværende") nulevende (see "nålevende") nummer number nuværende present ny new nyder almisse gets charity nyder vildkaar a person receiving pension paid by a new owner of land to the former owner nyfødt newborn nylig lately nytaar (see "nyttår") nyttår new year nær near, close nærast (see "nermest") nærmest nearest, close to næringsvei livelihood, trade nærvefeber (see "nervefeber") nå now nådegaver mercies nådegavene gifts og grace nådeløs merciless, ruthless nålevende living når when, if, reach nåværende present A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
O__________
o.s.v. abbr. for "og så videre" etc odg. abbr. for "odelsgutt" odj. abbr. for "odelsjente" odr. abbr. for "odelsrett" oberst colonel ode (see "øde") odegard (see "ødegard") odel birthright, alludial ownership odelsberettiget freehold right odelsbonde freeholder, allodialist odelsgutt oldest son who had right to inherit the farm odelsgård freehold farm, ancestral farm, allodium, see Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal) odelsjente oldest daughter who had right to inherit the farm, if there was no sons odelsrett allocial right for the oldest child to inherit the parents' farm offentlig public, official ofte often og and og så videre and so on oktober October okse bull, bullock, ox (pl: oxen) oldebarn great-grandchild (doesn't distinguish between son or daughter) oldefar great-grandfather oldeforeldre great-grandparents oldemor great-grandmother om if, about om året per year; every year (during the year would be "i løpet av året") ombudsmann trade-union representative omegn neighboring places surrounding, the area aournd omgangs skolelærer circuit teacher (Teachers in early days moved from farm to farm, staying for about a week on each and teach the local children) omgående omvandrende, means travelling ( or intinerant) Prompt or Immediate omkom died with accident omkomme died, killed omkring approximately omlag see ("omkring") omordn. abbr. for "omordning" omordning reorganization omreisende handelskarl travelling salesman omstendigheterne circumstances omtrent about, almost, nearly, approximately omvandrende (see "omgående" 1. line) omvendelse conversion onkel uncle onne the reasons where work is done onnetider, iee høyonna harvest hay onsdag Wednesday opdrage (see "oppdra") (archaic) opdrages (see "oppdras") (archaic) being raised (as a fosterchild) opg. = "oppgitt" reported, Information given by (often used in connection with parents information about child out-of wedlock) oph. (see "opphold") ophold (see "opphold") opkrevd collected opløst disbanded, demobilized opmerksomheten (see "oppmerksomheten") opstandelse (see "oppstandelse") opp up oppe above, upstairs oppdra bring up, educate, rear oppdras is being brought up oppfostre foster, to rear oppfødd hjå raised by oppført listed oppgitt stated oppgiven (see "oppgitt") (archaic) opphav origin opphold hos stay with oppholsted residence oppholt stayed at oppløst ekteskap dissolved marriage opplysninger information oppmerksomheten the attention oppmuret Grav a grave that was built of stones, a sort of grave chamber oppositionell contradictory opprinnelig original, natural opprinnelse origin opprørene rioters, mutineers oppsitjar (see "oppsitter") (nn) oppsitter occupant, leaseholder, tenant farmer Oppstandelse resurrection (from the death) excitement, hubbub, stir excitement, stir, ado commotion fuss oppsynsmann supervisor / inspector / attendant / warden oppsynssjef head of the patrol opptegnelse record oppvakt britght, intelligent oppvaksen grown up (nn) oppvoksen grown up oprorenes (see "opprørene") opsidder (see "oppsitter) opslager was the assistant of the blacksmith, handling the sledge. opsynsmand (see "oppsynsmann") opsynsmann (see "oppsynsmann") opsynschef (see "oppsynsjef") optiker optician orcanen (see "orkanen") ordbok dictionary ordforklaring the explanation of the words ordfører mayor ork effort, strain orkan hurricane orkanen the hurricane spokesman (for some cause, organisation,etc) orkester orchestra orlogsteneste Navy service orm maggot ornament ornament os smoke, strong odour, reek mouth of a river, outlet oss us ostehøvel cheese slicer ostekake cheesecake osteklokke cheese-dish with cover osteløype rennet ostesmørbrød varmt oste, cheeseburger ostre (see "østre") ottringsbåt (see "åttringsbåt") over over overdragelsen the conveyance, the delegation overingeniør chief engineer overlegne haughty, superior overlate transfer ownership, assign overlevende survivors overnevntes previously named (named above) overskrift headlines overstaaende mention above overstroken i liste has been struck off the list overstroket (see "overstrøket") overstryke cross off overstrykning crossing out, deletion overstrøket crossed out overtredelse transgression ovre (see "øvre") overvar was present overvære be present at, attend (fx the ceremony) Ox (see "okse") A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
P__________
pants. abbr. for "pantsette" pd. abbr. for "pund" pg. abbr. for "pige" pk. abbr. for "pike" prb. abbr. for "prestebol" prgj. abbr. for "prestegjeld" paaliggende (see "pålagt") paaske (see "påske") paaskjønnelse (see "påskjønnelse") pagina (Latin) page paktar (see "forpakter") pakkhusarbeider warehouse worker pallemanckes skiørt (Kalemankes skiørt) silken skirt, the surface of the silk cloth was cured with fir juice to achieve a special effect pant mortage, collateral for a loan pantebok mortgage record a chronological protocol where deeds, contracts and other documents of juridical and ecomoic importance for the farms in a parish/kommune where recorded or referred pantepengene the mortgange money panteregister an index to a "pantebok" where the information is ordered by farm number pantsette mortage, give as collateral for a loan parsell plot of land part part parykkmaker wigmaker pastor vicar, minister pave pope penger money pengemangel scarcity of money pengenød need for money pension (se "pensjon") pensjon pension pensjonering retirement pensjonær boarder pensjonist retired person pention (see "pensjon") pepperkaker gingerbread cookies, gingersnap pepper pepper pepperbøsse pepperbox pergament parchment, vellum perle pearl permisjon leave of absence permitert be on leave person person personnr persons number pest plague pige (see "pike") (archaic)(danish) pike girl, maid umarried female female domestic servant pikebarn female child pikenavn maiden name pinse Pentecost, Whitsun, Whit Sunday pk. abbr. for "pike" p. abbr. for "pike" (often for unmarried female) planlegging planning, organizing plante plant plads (see "husmannsplass") (archaic) pladsbrugerske female user of the farm pladsmandsdatter the daughter of a cottar pladsmannsson (see "husmannsønn") (archaic) plassmannssønn (see "husmannsønn") (archaic) plass (see "husmannsplass") plassen ble nedlagt farm remained neglected or vacant (in other words no one took it over at that time) plassmann (see "husmann") platearbeider sheet metal worker pleie nursing, care look after, nurse, take care of be accustomed, be used to pleie- og aldershjem nursing and old people's home pleiebarn (see "foster barn") pleiedtr (see "pleiedatter") pleiedatter foster daughter pleiefar foster father pleieforeldre foster parents pleiemor foster mother pleiehjem nursing home pleieassistent nursing assistant, care assistant pleiepersonale nursing staff pleiestiftelse nursing home or orphanage, depending on other information in the context. An institution where care and attention was given to persons who needed it. It is an old-fashioned word, not used in Norwegian anymore. The word gives a hint of charity. pleiesønn (see "foster son") plejesøn (see "pleiesønn") (archaic) plog a plow politi police politiker politician polske Polish post mail postaabner (see "poståpner") postbud (see "postmann") postfart served the postdistribution postkonvensjen postal practices agreement postmann mailman, mail carrier postmester postmaster poststyrer postmaster on a small postoffice poståpner the person who takes care of the mail on a small rural place potet potato pottemaker potter praktstykke (see "prakteksemplar") prakteksemplar magnificent specimen predike preacher preses pesident, chairman prest minister, priest, clergyman prestebol land belonging to a parish, usually refers to the farm house where the priest lived (the vicarage) prestegaard (see "prestegård") Prgj. abbr. for Prestegjeld prestegjeld clerical district, parish; see The Norwegian Church several "prestegjeld" makes one "prosti" A ecclesiastical district of administration which comprises two or more sub-parishes ("sogn"), headed by a rector. prestegård minister's farm and farmhouse preussiske Prussian prins prince prinsesse princess privat private privatlaerer (see "privatlærer") privatlærer private teacher, tutor privet toilet producerede produced prost dean besides being a parish clergy, senior rector, senior priest who supervised the priests in the subparishes prosti Several "prosti" make one "bispedømme" protokoll minutes, written log provst (see "prost") præst (see "prest") præstegjeld (see "prestegjeld") pund old measurement 1 pund = 6 kilogram pølsemaker sausage maker pølsemagersvend journeyman to a sausage maker på on, at, upon på 1700-tallet in the 1700's påført added pålagt imposed påske Easter påskebrun easter tan påskjønnelse acknowledgement, appreciation, bonus, reward påskudd pretext, pretence, excuse påtegnet annotated A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
Q__________
quinde (see "kvinne") (archaic) quinder (see "kvinner") (archaic) Qvindemennske female people A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
R__________
radiotelegrafist radio operator, wireless operator rbdl. abbr. for "riksbankdalar" rdl. abbr. for "riksdalar" randet striped rasande furious realeksamen (might bee "realskoleeksamen" realskole secondary school, junior hight school realskoleeksamen now called "ungdomsskoleenksamen (10th grade); "equal" to the English "lower secondary school" realregister real estate rigistry redaktør chief editor rederi shipline redningskoite (see "redningsskøyte") redningsskøyte lifeboat, rescue boat, rescue vessel redningssentral rescue centre, rescue co-ordination centre US: rescue center, rescue coordination center, rescue operations center Redningstjenesten Rescue Service redningsvest life jacket, safety jacket, safety vest regimentsfeldtskær Regimental Field Surgeon regimentkameater regimental comrades/colleagues regiment kvartermester regimental quarter master, an officer in charge of supplies. register index, register registrert registered regjering government regning bill Regning do arithmetic/mathematical regnskap account reinsdyr reindeer reise to travel raise (reise et spørsmål = raise a question) to erect get up (reise seg) a journey reisedato departure date reisemål destination reiser til sin mand travel to her husband reisetill. permission to travel i.e. emigrate rejese (see "reise") rekke row, line reach rekkje (see "rekke") rekning arithmetic. math rekna arithmetic, math reknast accounted as rektor headmaster, school principal religion religion reluitionsretten (see "gjenskjøpsretten") rengjøring cleaning rennende running as in "running water" rentenist rentier, person of independent means reparatør repairer, mender, repairman representant representative repslager ropemaker resterende the remaining restparten the remaining portion restsattt tax due rett court right, correct rettferdig just, righteous rettsak law suit rettsleg legal revisor auditor ridder knight ride ride rig (see "rik") (archaic) rik wealthy rikeste mann the richest man riksbankdalar old measurement riksdalar old measurement Rikstrygdeverket Norwegian State Social Security Office riktig correct ridende se rennende ring poor quality, used to describe filds ring ring inntekt poor income Ritmester (see "Rittmester") Rittmester Cavalry Captain rode (see "rote") roeskarl (see "roerskarl") roerskarl oarsman, row-man rokk Spinning wheels, see Spinning wheels rorbu fishermen's cabins rotbryter (see "stubbebryter") rote smallest subdivision of a conscription district a group of farms which kept up a section of the road by work in kind; the section of the road itself rug rye (the grain) rulle list, roll rumpetroll tadpole, baby frogs rundt around rutebil bus, coach rydning clearing rydningsrøyser pile of stone on a clearing (the clearing being made by placing the stones in piles rykke advance (also other meanings depending on context) rytter cavalryman rømme run away, desert, escape, leave, quit rømmegrøt cream pudding røttene roots rørlegger plumber røykstove smoke house (mostly used for smokin (curing) meat and fish), but also a the room in the house (stue) where the mans retired after dinner to have their sigaretts. røys stone pile, heap of stones råd advice råde bygselen decide the renting rådhus city hall rådmann councilman rådstuearkiv local courts archive /courthouse archive rå for be master of, have control of rår present tense of the verb "rå" A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
S__________
s. abbr. for "sønn" or "samme", depending on context s.å. abbr. for "samme år" sk. abbr. for "skøyte" skld. abbr. for "skylddalar" skill. abbr. for "skilling" skmk. abbr. for "skyldmark" spd. abbr. for "speciedalar" St. abbr. for "Sancte" s.k. abbr. for "såkalt" sa said, stated sabbat Sabbath sadelmagerlærling saddlemaker's apprentic saeter (see "seter") sag saw sagde (see "sa") sagen the saw (see "saken") sagarbeider working at a sawmill sagbruk sawmill sagbrukseier sawmill owner sagbrugsarbeider sawmill worker sagmester master sawmiller sagnet legend, myth saken the case sakfører (see "advorkat") salig deceased, holy, blessed salmaker saddle maker salmebok hymn book salt salt sambo monoecious, synoecious (see "samboer") samboende cohabiting samboer cohabitee, common law wife/husband live-in (boyfriend/girlfriend) samboerforhold equal to "non-marital" or "extra-marital cohabitation" common-law marriage sambt together with same same a Lapp (nomadic people in nothern Norway) sammets certain quaity of silk samfunn society samisk Lapp (nomodic people in northern Norway) samleie intercourse samman together (nn) sammanboende (see "sambo") samme same samme dag the same day samme år same year sammen together sammested same place samstundes same time samtlige all samtykke consent, agreement sars cotton Sars or 'sarses' is also called 'sakses' = fabric woven of Saxon wool. sat smått i det was doing poorly sat tungt i det "Had a hard time" or "difficult times" (related to the economical situation of the person(s) in mind) sau sheep sauehus sheep stalls scibred (see "skipreide") se to see se også refer to seg oneself, himself, herself seg selv in itself segni (see "sagnet")(archaic) seieren the victor seil sail seile to sail seilboat sailboat seildukmaker canvasmaker seilmager sailmaker seilte sailed seinare (see "senere") (nn) sekretær secretary seks six seksten sixteen sekstende sixteenth seksti sixty sekstiende sixtieth selde (see "selgde") (nn) selgde sold selge sell seljefløyte willow flute or willow pipe (see also "fløyte") How to make Seljefølyte selv self selveier owner, freeholder, se also Norwegian farms - some background information selveier selvejer (see "selveier") selvmord suicide senere later seng bed sengeliggende bedridden separeret separated september September sereige (see "Særeie") (nn) sersjant sergeant seter summer cabin with grazing land in the mountains, sia later on, there after (nn) side page, side sidehus side house siden since, later sidenummer page number sielffuer (see "seg selv") siktebrød Norwegian Rye bread sild herring sildaeventyret herringadventure sildearbeide herring processing, packing, salting etc silingsbøtter milk buckets sin, sitt, sine his, hers, its sindelag disposition, temper, perperament, sentiment, opinion sinnskrise nervous breakdown sindsvag (see "sinnsvak") (archaic) sinnsvak insane, retarded sinnsyk mentally ill, mad sinnsykehus insane saylum, madhouse sinnssykasyl (see "sinnsykehus") sinssyk lunatic sirs cotton siselørlærling engraver apprentice siste last, latter siste olje last rites sidstnævntes last mentioned sidstenæmntes (see "sidstnævntes") sivstand (see "sivilstand") sivilstand marital status (g=married; ug=unmarried/single; e=widow/er) sjauer dockhand or worker, longshoreman or stevedor sjef chief, manager sjeleregistrer early parish register sjette sixth sjo (see "sjø") also for other word starting with "sjo" sjokadett (see "sjøkadett") sju (see "syv") (nn) sjuende seventh sjuk (see "syk") (nn) sjukdom (see "sykdom") (nn) sjuårskrigen the seven year long (1563-1570) inter Nordic war between Sweden and the countries of Norway-Denmark, Poland and Lübeck. A peace treaty was signed at Stettin in 1570. Sweden had occupied Jemtland and Herjedalen (Norway), while Norway-Denmark took Alvsborg (Sweden). Sweden had to return their occupations and cede Gotland and pay ransom for Alvsborg. sjø sea, lake sjøaure salmon trout sjøbruk (see "havbruk") sjøfarende sea faring, seaman, sailor sjøfart navigation shiping sjøfløyte (see "fløyte") sjøfolk seaman sjøforklaring maritime declaration sjøgang heavy sea sjøhus quayside room sjøkadett naval cadet sjøkaptein captain on a vessel sjøl (see "selv") sjømand (see "sjømann") sjømands..... (see "sjømanns...") sjømann sailor, seaman sjømannshjem sailorshome sjømannskirke seamens's church sjømerke seamark, beacon, navigation mark, buoy sjømil nautical mile sjøorm seaserpent sjøreise voyage sjørett maritime court sjøslaget the naval battle sjå (see "se") might also be a small house (nn) sjåfør driver skaffar (see "skaffer") skaffer to provide for, obtain skal shall, must skalk outside slice, first cut (of a loaf) bowler hat skalke batten down the hatches skalkeskjul blind, cover skall shell, test skalp scalp skalpell scalper, scalpel (med.) skamfere spoil, damage skarlangensfeber scarlet fever skarp scrap skarpretter executioner, hangman skarpskytter sharpshooter skatt tax you have paid tax for each payment from your employer (he send it to the authorities) after a table made up by the goverment the year before. on yuor taxreturn it will show if this prepayment is Ok, or less or to high, then you either get a bill for the rest (3 weeks to pay or a nice payback with a low interest (do not save your money here!) skatt og avgift tax and duty/fee skattefut tax collector, (the) taxman skatteinnkreving tax collection skattelister tax registers, taxation roll Skattemanntall census like listing of persons subjected to pay taxes skattematrikkel written tax roll, register skatteregel tax rule skattesats tax rate skattetakst valuation of property for rating purposes skaut headscarf, square, kerchief skautut with a white head (about manimals) skeiser (see "skjøyter") skemaker (see "skjemaker") (archaic) skib (see "skip") (archaic) skibsfører ship's captain (archaic) skieløber (see "skiløper") skifte Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal) by John Follesdal change skifteattest certificate of probate skiftebøker probate protocols skifteprotokoll probate record book / estate inventory skifterettsdommer probate judge skifteretten probate court skiftesamling meeting of all heirs and beneficiaries skiftetvist probate action skild (see "skilt") skilde divorce, partition, subdivide skille to divorce, partition, subdiviede skilling old currency, see Old measurements skilsmisse divorce skilt divorced skilting signposting skiløper infantry soldier on skis skip ship, vessel skipreide military district (archaic) skipper skipper, master mariner skipperborger shippmaster and citezen, belonging to a social layer above the working class skipsbygger ship builder Skipsopplysningsregister = Ship Supply Information Register skipstømmermann carpenter onboad a ship skjedde happened skjemaker a man making spoons skjorte shirt skjut mare (see "Skaut") skjønnsforretning appraisal, valuatio skjønnsretten the appraisal or valuation court skjøte deed (property) (nn) skjøyta (see "skøyte") skjøyte ice skates (see "skjøte") boat, read fiskeskjøte = fishingboat sko shoes skoemager (see "skomaker") (archaic) skomager (see "skomaker") skog forest skogdrift forestry, forest management skogholt grove, spinney skogsarbeider limberjack, logger, forestworker skogfut forest bailiff? skoghogger (see "skogsarbeider") skogridder forest manager skogtømmer forest timber skogvokter forester skole school skolebarn school child (student) skolediscipel pupil skoledistrict (see "skoledistrikt") skoledistrikt school district skoleholder schoolmaster, teacher in early times, the owner of the place where the school was held. skolekorps school's marching band skolemester schoolmaster skolestue the small building used for school skolestyre schoolboard skomager (see "skomaker") (archaic) skomagerdreng shoemaker apprentice skomagersvend (see "skomakersvenn") skomaker shoemaker skomakermester master shoemaker skomakersvenn shomaker journeyman skoskatt in 1711 shoe tax skoten (see "skutt") skov (see "skog") skovarbeider (see "skogsarbeider") skovhugger (see "skogsarbeider") (archaic) skovvokter (see "skogvokter" skovridder (see "skogridder") skrabhandler (see "skraphandler") skraeder (see "skredder") (archaic) skraedder (see "skredder") skraphandler scrapdeale in junk metals, etc skredder tailor skreddersvend apprentice tailor skreppe bag, knapsack (about girls) bird, piece, bint skreppehandel pedlary skreppekar pedlar, peddler skriftlige written skriftlig writing skrin small chest skrivekar (see "kontorist") (archaic) skriver scribe (writer) skrædder (see "skredder") (archaic) Skrædderm. (see "skreddermester) skræddemester (see "skreddermester") skreddermester master tailor skræddersvend (see "skreddersvend") skude (see "skute") skyds (see "skyss") (archaic) skudsmålsbog servant's conduct book skuld (see "skyld") (archaic) skulle should skurekone cleaning woman skuronne the harvest time skute small ship skutt shot skyld debt tax, (especially real estate tax, see "landskyld") a measure for evaluation of ground, and this is the explanation for the word "skylddeling". skylddeling (land) survey (in USA?) skylddalar tases owed in "dalar" skyldfri (about property) unencumbered innocent, blameless, guiltless, chaste, pure debtless, free from debt skyldmark taxes owed in "mark" skyldsatt appraised and split of from anothere property - and given a realative value in the land registry system skyldsetning taxation, assessment skyldskap relationship skyldspørsmål question of guilt skynde på noen hustle el. hurry somebody skynde seg hurry skynde seg å hasten to, lose no time in -ing skyss conveyance (transport of travellers by horse or boat) skysset henne av sted they bundled her off skyssgodtgjørelse travel allowace skysshest post-horse skysspenger fare skyss-skaffar a person who provides for transport/conveyance skysstasjon posting station, posting inn, coaching inn skyssvogn stagecoach, post chaise skyte shoot skærpedes is sharpened skøyte boat (see "skjøte") skate skøytebok register of transfers of ownership of real estate skålgrop cup hole skårunge the first year boys in the Lofoten fisheries slag blow stroke, apolectic stroke military battle slagbenk bench which opens into a bed (Haugen) slagter (see "slakter") slakt meat, slaughtered animals slakte to butcher slakter butcher slarv idle gossip, tattle slarva ut did not take care of their property slave a prisoner sentenced to hard labour slave slegfreddatter extramatarial daughter. slekt relatives, family, lineage slekten the family, lineage slektninger relatives slektsforskning genealogy slektsgren branch, line of a family slektshistorie family history lineage books slektsnavn family name, surname slektsvåpen family coat of arms slik thus, in this way slott castle, palace slottsmenight the parish associated with the castle area slyng loop, winding, turn slægten (see "slekten") (archaic) slægtfred slegfred slå thrash, beat, flog slå ihjel kill slått mowing hay slotten the haying (cutting, mowing); the hayfield slåttonn mowing season smaabruk (see "småbruk") (archaic) smaafæ (see "småfe") (archaic) smak taste smale (see "sau") smed blacksmith smedlærling blacksmith apprentice smedmester master blacksmith smie forge, smithy smykke jewelry, jewellery, ornament, piece of jewelry smør butter smørambarar buttercups småfe usually means calves, sheep and goats but used as a common term for cloven-hoofed animals småbruk small farm småbruker a farmer of a small farm småkrøtter (see "småfe") småkveg (see "småfe") snart soon snarrådig rsourcefull snedker (see "snekker") snedker for egen regningself-employed cabinet maker snekker (funiture-) cabinetmaker, (timber-)carpenter, (house-) joiner snikkar (see "snekker") snøskred avalanche snædker (see "snekker") sofarende (see "sjøfarende") soga (see "historie") n.n. soge (see "historie") n.n. sogn subparish, see The Norwegian Church A ecclesiastical district of administration, headed by a curate. sogneprest subparish priest A rector is the head of a parish (prestegjeld) and a senior official (subordinated a bishop). sokn (see "sogn") (archaic) sokneprest (see "sogneprest") (archaic) Solbær-syltetøy Black currant - jam sols sieve (?) for barley, a throe with small holes in it soldat soldier soldat i borgerkrigen soldier in the Civil war soldag u.k. soldier under command solgt sold soleis (see "slik") som who, which, that som det sig sømmede which was appropriate, suitable (for a person of her social class) somand (see "sjømann") sommer summer son (see "sønn") (archaic) sonnedatter (see "sønnedatter") sonneson (see "sønnesønn") Sonnesøs grandchild sorenskriver magistrate, probate judge, see Norwegian skifter -- Probate Records (John Follesdal) sort black sose bort blunder away sosialkurator social worker, welfare officer sosialsjef director of social services spann bucket (old measurement) (18 kg of butter) team of horses, oxes, dogs spannsteigflekket a patch of land that would pay 1 spann,annual land rent. spanskesjuka (see "spankesyken") spanskesyken Spanish flu sparke to kick spark (see "sparkstøtting") sparkstøtting chair sledge spebarn infant, baby spedalsk leprous spedkalv (see "spekalv") spekalv sucking calfs spekekjøtt hung beef spekelår mutton ham spekelår mutton ham spekemat cured meat, dried meat spekesild salt herring spenne buckle, clasp stretch, strain, tighten, strap speciedaler old currency, see Old measurements before 1875 spillemann musician, fiddler spillesykja leprosy spinderiarbeider spinning mill worker spinderske (see "spinnerske") spinding (see "rokk") spinnerske femal spinner spisestue dining room spiseværet (see " spisevært") spisevært landlord, host of a dinner establishment, eating house keepe spiskam (see "spiskammer") spiskammer pantry, larder spiseskje tablespoon tablespoonful (measure) sprit alcohol språk language ss abbr. for "spiseskje" st. abbr. for "Student" stabbur storehouse on pillars tabburet the storehouse stad town stader (see steder") stadfest If this occur in connection with a baptism, it tells that the child has first been bapt at home, most probably because the child was very ill and in danger of dying, and a month later the child baptism was confirmed by the minister in church in a special ceremony. This still happens sometimes, you know. Sometimes new-born babies are baptized in hospital, too, if there are complications. Stadthauptmand every city of some size had a socalled "borgergarde" - citizens military corps. The Stadthauptmand was its commanding officer stald (see "stald") staldkarl stall groom stall barn, stable, usually a (horse)stable stamfar progenitor stamgods inherited property/estate stamrulle basic list used by the militay to adjust their own liste over possible soldiers, bassed on list from the church stamtavle descendancy chart, ancestry table stand social position Start med bilde nr start with picture number stasjonsmester station master el. manager (at the raiload) staten the national government statsarkivet National archives statsbanene (see "NSB") statsborgerskap citizenship statsminister prime minister stattholder governor, viceregent staup drinking cup, goblet smørstaup staut kar fine fellow, stalwart fellow stavafabrikken stave factory stavkirke stave church stebarn step child stebror step brother sted place, location steder places, locations stedatter stepdaughter stedsnavn name of location stefar step father stefne (see "Stevne") stefning (see "stevning") stefnemaal stenarbeider (see "steinarbeider") steinarbeider stoneworker steler for .... (see "steller for ...") steller for ..... keeps house for ...... stenarbeider stone quarry worker stenhugger (see "steinhogger") steinbrot (see "steinbrudd") steinbrudd stone quarry, quarry steinhogger stone cutter steinsetjingar (see "steinsetting") steinsetting pavement, stone pitching, riprap stemets certain quaity of silk stemmeberettiget qualified to vote stemor step mother stervboe (see "dødsbo") might be done as a connection to the German word "sterben" = to die stesønn step son stesøster step sister stevning summons stevne summon stevnemøte to make a date stevnemål suit stevnevitne process-server, bailiff stifdatter (see "stedatter") stifson (see "stesønn") stiffson (see "stesønn") stiffsøn (see "stesønn") stift diocese (archaic) There is more than one church in a parish and more than one parish in a stift. A higher level in the Lutheran organization. Stiftskriver an official ("embetsmann") of whom there was one in every len or (after 1660) amt. His job was to control or keep track of the church wardens ("kirkeverge") of whom there was one in evety parish. The church wardens handled the properties and incomes of the churches. stifterlseslem a person that receive supprt from a "stiftelser" stiftelse a foundation, probably local, established by some wealthy person or diocese to aid the poor and ill stiger forman of mineres stilling status, position, occupation stipendium scholarship stiv heks (grandmother's footsteps (game) stokkfisk (see "tørrfisk") stor large storfe cattle storkveg cattle (nn) storlevande (see "Storfe") stormoppslag stort konjakkglass (se "drink") stova (see "stue") stove small house or cottage where the people is living(nn) stovehus The house where people is living straebsom (see "strevsom") straff punishment straffange prisoner straks right away, immediately strand beach strandsidd (see "strandsitter") strandsitjarar (see "strandsitter") strandsitter person who rented a house on a larger farm near or at the coastline, see also "husmann" strev toil, labor strevsom hardworking stridighed (see "stridighet") stridighet stubborness, willfulness. conflict, dispute, controversy stridt difficult strikking knitting strubehoste (see "strupehoste") strupehoste croup strygerske ironer, female strykepike ironing (laundry) maid stræbsom (see "strevsom") stubbebryter stump puller student student stue a small house a room in the house, living room stuepike parlourmaid, housemaid (in a home) chambermaid (at a hotel) stugu (see "stue") stum mute (can't speak) stykkson (see "stesønn") stykson (see "stesønn") stuttmål (see "korthet") (nn) stygg ugly (look like) bad, nasty, ugly, foul (behave) styrer ruler, director styrmand (see "stymann") styrmann ships mate stæedatter (see "stedatter") støbe (see "støpe") støber (see "støper") støper (see "støperiarbeider") støberiarbeider (see "støperiarbeider") støpe casting or concrete (often metal in a foundary) støperiarbeider foundryworker, foundryman støl (see "seter") største largest støype (see " støpe") (nn) står stands står skrevet to be written sukker sugar summa (Latin) totals summarisk statistical, summary surrekopp buzzhead, "muddle-headed" or restless kid susselsat (see "sysselsatt") svartbrune black-brown, dark brown svartkinn black cheek svartflekket black spotted svag (see "svak") svak weak svakhet weakness svart black svend (see "svenn") svenn journeyman svensk Swedish Sverige Sweden svigerdatter daughter-in-law svigerfader (see "svigerfar") svigerfar father-in-law svigerforeldre father-in-law and mother-in-law svigerinne sister-in-law svigermoder (see "svigermor") svigermor mother-in-law svigersønn son-in-law svin pig svoger brother-in-law svulst tumor svær large sy to sow syd south sydlig southern syerske seamstress syfilis syphilis syg (see "syk") sygebesøg (see "sykebesøk") sygehuus (see "sykehus") sygehuuslem hospital patient sygepleierske (see "sykepleierske") syk sick sykdom disease, illnes sykebesøk sick call sykehus hospital sykepleier nurce sykepleierske nurce (female) syklig sickly synte thought synet the eyesight, the ability to see sypige (see "sypike") (archaic) sypike seamstress syskenbarn cousins (nn) sysselsatt med employed at syster (see "søster") (nn) sytten seventeen syttende seventeenth sytti seventy syttiende seventieth syv seven syvende seventh sængeliggende (see "sengeliggende") særtrekk special facial feature distinctive characteristics Særeie Separate estate/property særtrykk off print sæter (see "seter") søen (see "sjø") søfarende (see "sjøfarende") søfartsbok seafaring book søger seeks søk i bikdearkivet seek in picture archive søkeord seek-word (key word) sølv silver sølvbeslag silver mounting sølvstandard silverstandard sølvvaerksarb (see "sølvverksarbeider") sølvverksarbeider silver smelter worker sølveigar farmer who owns his own farm, i.e. does not lease it (nn) sølvmark silvermark (in 1522 we can use the valur of "landskyld" - in some partof Norway - one mark silver would buy 6 to eight cows, while 8 marks would be the price of a nice farm) sømand (see "sjømann") søn (see "sønn") (archaic) søndag Sunday søndre southern søner (see "sønner") plural of "sønn" sønn son sønne kjæreste The son's wife-to-be, but not yet married in church sønnedatter son's daughter sønner sons sønnesøn son's son sør south sørgrense southern border søsken siblings søslaget (see "sjøslaget") sødskende (see "søsken") søskenbarn niece, first cousin (female or male) søskenbarnet the first cousin søster sister søsterdatter sister's daughter, cousins søstersønn sister's son, cousins søvverksarbei (see "sølvverksarbeider") så saw (see), so, if so, sow (seed) sådan such såkalt so called såkurv sowing basket således thus, in this or that såsom as, such as såvidt as far as A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
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T. abbr. for "tellingssted" or "tellingskrets" tste abbr. for "tjeneste" ta to take tages is/are taken tab (see "tap") tak roof takk thank you takk for maten is what everyone is supposted to say after a meal, and the host(ess) or the mother or whoever made the food, answers "vel bekomme" takksigelse thanksgiving takst rated value tale speech tall number, count tallet, 1800-tallet centure, 19th century etc talrig (see "tallrik") tallrik numerous tambur drummer (soldier) tann toth tannlege dentist tannlæge (see "tannlege") tanntekniker dental mechanic tante aunt tarm bowel, gut, intestine tarmslyng volvulus tap loss tapperhet courage tatt the perfect participle form of the Norwegian verb 'ta' or 'take', which means 'take' in English tatt av snøskred taken in avalanche taus quiet tautrekking means a tug-of-war, in other words a conflict teglverk brickworks teglbrander (see "teglbrænder) teglbrænder brick/tile burner and refers to one who tends the firing of bricks. tegnebok scetching book Tegning Drawing teig field on a farm teksel (see "bøkkerøks") teksle (see "bøkkerøks") tekstil textile tekstilarbeider textile worker tekstilingeniør textile engineer tekstilarbeider textile worker at the warehouse tele ground frost, frozen soil, frozen ground, frost, ice telefon telephone telegrafverket (see "televerket") telegrafist telegraphist, telegraph operator televerktet phonecompany in Norway, now named as Telenor tellinga literally means counting, but probably means census here. tellingstedet location of census, enumeration place tellingskrets location of census, enumeration place telthus telt house tenestejenta (see "tjenestejente") terne housemaid testamente last will testamentere bequeath tettsted community / densely populated area is a town-like place which does not qualify to be called a "by" in Norwegian. may consist of only a few houses, but still be considered as a sort of centre by people who live in the area. is also used about places like Sunndalsøra (pop. ca 5000), Orkanger (ca 4000), and Meråker (ca 2000), to mention a few. Americans (the ones I know, anyway) seem to call these places (small) towns. In Norway, a "tettsted" is part of a "kommune" - municiplaity - it is not a separate unit. texel (see "bødkerøks") Sheep from the Nederland ti ten tid time tidlig early tidligere eralier, prior tidsperiode period of time tidsskrift periodical tiend tithing, one tenth of ones's income or harvest, payable to the church tiende tenth, tithing tiener (see "tjener") tienestedreng (see "tjenestedreng") tienestepige (see "tjenestepike") tigger beggar til to, until, for til sjøs at sea tilbage (see "tilbake") tilbake back, stay tilbakestående mental retarded tilbringe spend one's time tilgang access, approach, admissions tilgjengelig assessible tilhøre belong to tilhøve condition tillatelse dispensation, permission tillegge ascribe to, attribute to, assign to tillit confidence tillysnings dagene days banns were read tilreisende visitor tilsett ved (see "ansatt ved") tilsist behind, last, at the end, finally tilstede present tilsynsmand supervisor tilstedeværende present tilsøs (see "til sjøs") tilvekst growth of some kind time hour timmermand (see "tømmermann") tine round or oval bentwood box, with handle on lid, which is closed by being pressed between two upright pieces of wood, Pine bentwood box melting ting thing; legislative or judicial assembly (local, regional or national) tingbøker protocols from local meeting of juridical importance tinglag judicial district tinglyse public announcement of the existence of a written contract, prior to the contract being copied into the 'tingbok' - a book containing copies of such publicly announced documents. The past tense of tinglyse is tinglyst. The Tingbok is a very important source for Norwegian genealogy research. tingprovet evidence at court tinnknapper pewter buttons tippe do the pools, gjette tippoldefar great-great-grandfather tippoldemor great-great-grandmother tippoldeforeldre great-great-grandparents tirsdag Tuesday titel (see "tittel") (archaic) tittel title tiur wood grous tj. (see "tjener" or "tjenestedreng" or "tjenestepige") tjene serve, work, earn tjener servant, waiter tjenerskatt in 1711 servant tax tjeneste service tjenestedreng servant, employe (male) tjenestefolk servants, eiter domestic or hired hands tjenesteforseelse service misconduct tjenestegut (see "tjenestegutt") tjenestegutt young male servant tjenesteiver eagerness to serve tjenestekarl male employee tjenestekone female servant tjenestejente young femal servant, maid tjenestepige (see "tjenestepike") tjenestepike servant, employee, maid (female), housemaid tjenestequinde servant (female) tjenestgjorde served tjente served, earned tjue (tyve) twenty tjueen twenty-one tjuefem twenty-five tjuefire twenty-four tjuende twentieth tjueni twenty-nine tjueseks twenty-six tjuesju twenty-seven tjueto twenty-two tjuetre twenty-three tjueåtte twenty-eight to two to i spann two in tow toetasjers two story (building9 tohundre two-hundred tok took told (see "toll") Toldrorskarl man who rowed the boat(s) for the custom service. The custom service always had boats and rowers ready to get fast out and inspect the ships coming into harbour (before they could bring anything ashore). toll customs tollbetjent customs officer tollekniv sheath knife tollverket customs department tolv twelve tolvte twelfth tommar (see "tommer") tommer inches tommermand (see "tømmermann") tomt lot (of land) tomtearbeider working at building sites tomansbruk a semi-detached farm, perhaps owned by a single individual, but used simultaneously by two different farmers torp common ending of farm and village names (swedish), se also Swedish dictionary torsdag Thursday tre three the number three wood traevirke (see "trevirke") traesliberiarbeider (see "tresliperiarbeider") tran cod liver oil tranbrænderi (see "tranbrenneri") tranbrenneri trau trough tredde tredje third tredve thirty trefningene the engagements trekkegarn drawnet Trekkspill Pictures and information about Trekkespill (Accordion family) trelast load of lumber trelastvirksomhed lumber firm tremassefabrikk pulp factory tremenning second cousins trenagler wooden nail, wooden peg, wooden pin (used for fastening planks) treskjemaskin threshing machine treskje thresh, threshing spoon made of wood tresko Wooden shoes tresliperi pulp mill tresliperiarbeider a worker in a pulp mill tretten thirteen trettende thirteenth tretti thirty trettien thirty-one trevarer wooden items treverk things made out of tree trevirke woodworking trol. (see "trolovelse") trolig probably trollat to be mischievous trollpakk pack of trolls naughty children trollskap witchcraft trolove betroth, engage trolovelse betrothment, engagement (This is a public announcement (in church) of betrothal was a legal requirement. Without it you could not marry. I think thies lasted untill late 1800 or even early 1900's.) trolovet (see "forlovet") trosbekjennelse creed trossamf (abbreviation for " Trossamfund") trossamfunn religious belief trulig (See "trolig") (nn) træsliberi (see "tresliperi") træsliberiearbeider (see "tresliperiarbeider") trædreier wood turner (as with a lathe) træfningerne (see "trefningene") Træfningen ved ... the military action at ... træk to draw træsliberi pulp mill Trønder a native of Trøndelag trøye jacket, vest trådte stepped over tuberkulose tuburculosis, consumption tuft site, homestead tugthus (see "tukthus") (archaic) tukthus prison tulft old currency, see Old measurements tungarbeid heavy work tunet the courtyard tusen thousand tuskhandel barter tusle patter, walk gently tuslede weak, shaky tusmørke dusk, twilight tussefløyte (see "fløyte") tvangsfange prisoner (at hard labor) tvangsarbeide hard labor, forced labor tvende twain, the same as two (archaic) tvilling twin tyende female servant (archaic) tyfus typhoid fever typograf typograher tysk German Tyskland Germany tyv thief tyve twenty tyvende twentieth tæle (see "tele") tændestik fyrstikker (danish) tæring galloping tuberculosis, which brought the death very fast tømmer lumber, timber tømmerarbeider worker on lumber tømmerbygning timberhouse tømmerflaader (see "tømmerfløter") tømmerfløyter (see "tømmerfløter") tømmerfløter log driver, riverd river tømmerfløting river driving of logs tømmerhugger logger tømmermand (see "tømmermann") tømmermann carpenter, framer, timber cruiser tømmerstova (see "tømmerstuen") tømmerstuen log cabin, house tønne barrel tønnefabrikk barrel factory tønnestavar barrel staves. tørke drought tørrfisk usual cod, dried in open air without salt, usual hung on "hjeller" tæring tuberculosis tå from (nn) toe A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
U__________
u.e. (see "utenfor ekteskap") (abbr.) ue (see "utenfor ekteskap") (abbr.) ug. (see "ugift") (abbr.) udfl. bet (see "udflytning betalt") (abbr.) u-schichelighet (see "uskikkelighet") uaegte (see "uekte") uagtet (see "uaktet") uaktet notwithstanding uden (see "uten") udi from, in (archaic) udflytning betalt emigration fee paid udflyttede moved out udføre (see "utføre") udgivet (see "utgitt") udholde (see "utholde") udlæggelser explanations udnævnt (see "utnevnt") Udskiftningsformand a supervisor of estate distribution. Was usually a man that was highly respected. He and two others made a suggestion how to join small divided piece of land into a bigger unit. He had to bear in mind that no one should loose on such a merging. At last he had to negotiate a solution that all the farmers could approve. udslått grassy piece of the outlying field udtraadt mostly "gone out " of the congregation, presumably the Norwegian State Church udtraadt samfund withdrawn from society (church) udtraadte outgoing (member going out of the Lutheran church), the persons have renounced their memberships udyktig incapable udygtigheds pas passport of disability (literally), documentat showing that he was unfit for mlitary service udøpt unbaptized uekte (see "utenfor ekteskap") uaegtefodte (see "utenfor ekteskap") uff-da a weak fit of ill temper uforfærdede fearless uforvarende unexpectedly, unawares, accidentally, inadvertently ufør crippled ug. abbr. for "ugift" (abbr.) uge (see "uke") (archaic) uger (see "uker") (archaic) ugift single, not married uhuglege tilburden unpleasant event uhrmager (see "urmaker") uk. (see "ungkar") (abbr.) uke week uker weeks ukjent unknown, foreign uld (see "ull") uldvare (see "ullvare") ulendt difficult to traver, rugged, pathless, trackless ulovlig illegal ulykke accident ulykkelig unhappy ull wool ullvare products of wool ullvarefabrikk woollen goods factory, woollen mill umoralsk immoral umyndig under legal age under under, below under miracle. marvel, wonder underfor under lining underholde support, maintain entertain underlig strange/odd/peculiar underofficerskole non-commissioned officer underskrevne the undersigned underskrift signature underskrive to sign understøttes (see "underholde") understøttelse support, aid, assistance undertegne to sign undertegnet signed undertoldbetjent customs officer (of lower rank) undervisningsmetodikken methode of education undlate (see "unnlate") ung young ungdommsskole school, starts at 13; grades 8 thorught 10 uk (see "ungkar") ungk (see "ungkar") ungkar bachelor, unmarried man ungkarl (see "ungkar") (archaic) unnlate feoø. neglect, omit unntatt except ur watch urmaker watch-maker uskikkelighet naughtiness, improper uskyldig innocent ussel miserable, poor usømmelig indecent ut out utanriks (see "utenriks") utarma worn out, improverished utdannelse education Utdannelse i Norge Education in Norway utdrag extract utdø extinct, die out utdødd extinct, died out uten without utenfor outside of utenfor ekteskap out of wedlock, illegitimate, child born outside the marriage (church) utenlands abroad utenom outside, on the outside, round, outside of utenomekteskaplig out of wedlock utenriks foreign utenpåskrift outside address utflytning moving out utflytte move out from utflyttede moving from an area(moving out) utgiftene expenses utkommd (see "utkommandert") utkommandert called up, mobilized; called out (soldier) utmeldte resigning or withdrawing (in churchbook) utedo outhouse pit privy (with a hole in the ground) utføre perform, do utgi publish utgitt published, edited utholde endure uthus outhouse, outbuilding uti at, in utlagt named as, alleged utlandet foreign country, abroad utlignet skatt assessed tax utlose (see "utløse") utløse redeem start, provoke, release utnevnt appointed utraat (see "udtraadt samfund") utpreget emphatically utskilt partitioned/divided from utskriftsformat printer friendly form utstrykning (see "overstrykning") utukt lechery, fornication utv. (see "utvandret") (abbr.) utvalg committee selection utvandre emigrate utvandrer emigrant utvandret emigrated utvandret senere emigrated later on utvandring emigration utvandringsprotokoll emigrant regoster uvett folly, unwisdom utviklingshemmet mentally retarded utvise expel, send out, order out show, display uvær bad weather, storm utyske monster uønsket unwanted, unwished for, undesirable uægte (see "uekte") (archaic) uår bad year, crop failure A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
V__________
vaabenarb (see "våpenarbeider") vaaningshus (sse "våningshus") vad fishing gear, ie fishline, seine what vadmel thick homespun and woven wool cloth (for skirts and trousers) vadmelskjol homespun dress (suit) vadskepige (see "vaskepiker") vadtræk the way to draw the net in fishing vakre beautifull, handsome vaksinasjon vaccination, inoculation vaksinasjonsattest certificate of vaccination, vaccination certificate vaksinasjonsprotokoll vaccination register vaksinert vaccinated vaksne (see "voksne") vanfør crippled, disabled vanlegaste the usual vann water, lake vanningsanlegg a construction for spreding the water on the fields vanskapt deformed, handicapped vanskeligstilte people with large problem vansott dropsy vanvare accidentally vanvittig insane, mad, deranged, foolish var was, were var strøket over i KB deleted in the churchbook vart was (nn) vaskehus a local and private lundry vaskekone cleaner, charwoman, cleaning woman vaskepike a cleaning girl/woman, girl who works at a lundry, maid vaskeriarbeider laundry worker vatningsanlegg (see "vanningsanlegg") vattersot (see "vansott") vdj (see "udi") (archaic) ved at, by firewood ved siden av next to ved "Syv Slet" at seven o'clock (archaic) vedhugning (see "vedhugging") vedhugging wood cutting, wood splitting, the chopping of logs for fire wood. vedkommende person concerned vegarbeidar (see "veiarbeider") veger (see "veier") veggklokke wall clock vegvaktar (see "veivokter") vegvokter (see "veivokter") vej (see "vei") vejarbeidar (see "veiarbeider") vejarbeider (see "veiarbeider") vei road veiarbeider roadworker, one who was building or repairing roads veivokter roadman. He is looking after a certain part of the road. veier roads vekse opp grow up (nn) veldig very vel bekomme you are welcome, is a standard reply to "takk for maten" velsigne bless velsignet blessed, confounded, wonderful, heavenly velstand prosperity velvilligheten the benevolence, friendsliness, goodwill venn friend vennskap friendship venstre left (side) verbror brother in law (nn) verdotter daughter in law (nn) verdsett valued verdslig temporal, secular, worldly, mundane verdslige makt (den - ) the secular power veret (see "været") verfar (see "svigerfar")nn verge guardian verit (see "var") verksarbeidar Worker on a factory verkseier factory owner verkstad (see "verksted") verksted workshop, repair shop, works vermor (see "svigermor") nn verneplikt military duty verson (se "svigersønn") nn versøster sister in law (nn) vertshus inn, guesthouse vesener creatures, beings vest west waistcoat vester (see "vestre") vestre western veterinær veterinary sugeon, veterniarian (US) vever weaver veveriarbeider Worker in a weaving factory vevsje reed vesjemaker Weave-spool maker vi we vi er glad på dine vegne We are very happy for you vidare (see "videre") videre further videregående skole school, starts at 16; grades 1 thorught 3 vidne (see "vitne") viede (see "viet") vielse marriage, wedding vielsesattest marriage certificate viet married vigd (see "viet") vigelse marriage vik bay, inlet vikariater stand in for viker coves, inlets a receding hairline is called viker yielding, giving way retreating from an enemy departing, leaving drawing back, receding, retreating, flinching stepping aside vilkaar (see "vilkår") vilkår a pension paid by a new owner of land to the former owner ("see also "kår") villig willing vinter winter violin (see "fele") visergutt errand boy Visningsformat viewing format vistnok surely vite to know vitne witness testify vitnesbyrd testimony vogn carriage, wagon, vehicle vognfabrikk wagon factory vognhus car barn, buggy shed, wagon shed, house for wagons vognmaker wagon maker vognmand (see "vognmann") vognmann coachman vognfører ved Christiania could be Kristiania elektriske Sporvei; Christiania electric tram; they had " 18 vognførere " in 1894. In America it would be motorman at the Kristiania Electric Tram. voksne adult voldta rape voldtekt rape voldtatt raped vor (see "vår") værdig worthy være be væreier owner of a fishing station, the owner of the area around været weather værfader (see "svigerfar") værge (see "verge") (archaic) vært (see "var") værvarsling weather forecast væsener (see "vesener") væveriarbeider (see "veveriarbeider") våningshus the house on a farm where people live våger old measurement våpen coat of arms weapon våpenarbeider it means that the person made weapons or ammuniton, most likely in a factory vår our spring våre felles aner our common ancestry våronne the worktime at the farm in the spring vårsildfiskeriene spring herring fisheries A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
W__________
W If you see a word starting with W, då also look for the same word starting with V Welb. abbr. for Welbaarne Welbaarne born well, iee born to parents of a "high calass". Ususal used a a title by nobility Wisergut (see "visergutt") A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
X__________
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
Y__________
ymse (also Annet) misc. yndige charming, gracefull, lovely yngre younger yngst youngest yngste klasse youngest class yrke profession, occupation ytterlegare (see "ytterligere") (NN) ytterligere further yttre (see "ytre") ytre outer-most A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
Z__________
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
Æ__________
ægte legitimate (archaic) ægtefødt legitimate birth ægteskap (see "ekteskap")(archaic) ægtefolk (see "ektefolk") ægtefælle (see "ektefelle") ægteviede married aldste oldest (archaic) ærbødig respectful ære honor æresbevisninger marks of repect ærlig honest ærnærer seg support himselves/herselves ærnæring profession, making a living of. ætt family ancestors/family history/family tree æti (see "ætten") ætti (see "ætten") ætten the family, lineage ættegransking genealogy atting relatives, heir ættling heir A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
Ø__________
øde desolate, waste ødegard farm that was abandoned during the black death ødelegge destroy ødem vannansamling i kroppen grunnet bl a hjertesvikt, nyresykdom, også grunnet stoffskifte, langvarig hunger mm" (see "vattemsott") ødemark wasteland, wilderness øie (see "øye") ønske wish, desire, want ønskeplassen place of contemplation øre ear currency øst east østre eastern østsiden east side øvre upper øverst top, upper, uppermost, topmost, supreme øverste topmost øvet trained, practiced, experienced, skilled, trained øvrig remaining øy island øye eye øye på catch sight of øyeblikk moment, instant øyk mare (female horse) (nn) øyker mares (female horses) (nn) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Æ Ø Å
Å__________
åbor perch åleine (see "alene") (nn) åker field åkerland arable pang, plough land åket (bringe under - ) subjugate åkle bedspread, coverlet ånd spirit, ghost åndsarven spiritual heritage åndsbrytingane spiritual awakening åndsfraværende absent-minded, preoccupied åndsfrisk alert, of sound mind åndssvak mentally deficient, feeble minded åpen open, exposed år year årehus smal, one-rom house with a small opening in the roof to let out the smoke from the hearth. åre heath (in use untill the mid- to late-1800 in many rural areas in Norway åre oar åremål term of years åremålskontrakt employment contract for a term of years årene the years årene senere years following årestue open-hearth room årgang age group, year århundre century årleg (see "årlig") (nn) årlig annual, yearly årrekke in many years årsak cause, reason årsavgift annual fee årstid season, time of the year årsvekst the year's crop Åsatru Old gods åsete (see "åseterett") åseterett qualified allodial right of inheritance the right of one of the descendants of a dead owner of a farm have to take over the property at a reasonable price åsetesrett primogeniture åssen har du det (see "hvordan har du det") åssen går det (see "hvordan har du det") åssen går det med deg (see "hvordan har du det") åsted where event took place åtte owned (nn); he owned his car åtte eight Åtte dagers ur med kasse Eight day watch with case åttende eighth åtti eighty åttiede eightieth åttringsbåt a boat with 4 pairs of oars.
Numbers_________________________
In Norwegian genealogical sources, numbers are occasionally written out. This is especially common with dates. the following list gives the cardinal (1,2,3) and the ordinal ( 1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Cardinal Ordinal 0 null 1 en, et 1st, først 2 to 2nd, annen 3 tre 3rd, tredje 4 fire 4th, fjerde 5 fem 5th, femte 6 seks 6th, sjette 7 sju (syv) 7th, sjuende, (syvende) 8 åtte 8th, åttende 9 ni 9th, niende 10 ti 10th, tiende 11 elleve 11th, ellevte 12 tolv 12th, tolvte 13 tretten 13th, trettende 14 fjorten 14th, fjortende 15 femten 15th, femtende 16 seksten 16th, sekstende 17 sytten 17th, syttende 18 atten 18th, attende 19 nitten 19th, nittende 20 tjue 20th, tjuende, (tjvende) 21 tjueen 21st, tjueførst 22 tjueto 22nd, tjueannen 23 tjutre 23rd, tjuetredje 24 tjuefire 24th, tjuefjerde 25 tjuefem 25th, tjuefemte 26 tjueseks 26th, tjuesjette 27 tjuesju 27th, tjuesjuende 28 tjueåtte 28th, tjueåttende 29 tjueni 29th, tjueniende 30 tretti (tredve) 30th, trettiende 31 trettien 31st, trettiførst 40 førti 40th, førtiende 50 femti 50th, femtiende 60 seksti 60th, sekstiende 70 sytti 70th, syttiende 80 åtti 80th, åttiende 90 nitti 90th, nittiende 100 hundre 100th, hundrede 200 tohundre 200th, tohundrede 1000 tusen 1000th, tusende
DATES AND TIME __________________________________________
Use the terms in this section and the "Numbers" section above to interpret dates. MONTHS DAYS English Norsk English Norsk January januar Sunday søndag February februar Monday mandag March mars Tuesday tirsdag April april Wednesday onsdag May mai Thursday torsdag June juni Friday fredag July juli Saturday lørdag August august September september October oktober November november December desember